Chapter 6 - Alcohol Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Alcohol Deck (31)
1

alcohol abuse

  • excessive alcohol consumption that leads to severe alcohol-related health and other probelms
  • often starts in teenage and college years
  • 7 kcals per gram

2

ethanol

  • Chemical term for the form of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages

3

distillation

  • a physical method used to seperate liquids based on their boiling points

4

Alcohol proof

  • represents twice the volume of alcohol in percentage terms
  • 80 proof vodka = 40% alcohol

5

Chief site for alcohol metabolism

  • Liver

6

Alcohol dehydrogenase

  • An enzyme used in alcohol (ethanol) metabolism
  • key to alcohol metabolism
  • acts on 90% of the dose consumed

7

cirrhosis

  • A loss of functioning liver cells, which are replaced by nonfunctioning connective tissue. 
  • Any susbstance that poisons liver cells can lead to cirrhosis
  • Also, exposure to certain industrial chemicals can cause this

8

What does alcohol turn into once acted on by alcohol dehydrogenase

acetaldehyde

9

ischemic stroke

  • a stroke caused by the absence of blood flow to a part of the brain
  • risk decreased in light to moderate drinkers

10

free radicals

  • short-lived forms of compounds that exist with an unpaired electron, causing it to seek an electron from another compound
  • very destructive to electron-dense cell components, such as DNA and cell membranes.

11

acute alcohol intoxication

  • a temporary detrioration in mental function, accompanied by lack of coordination and partial paralysis, arising from drinking alcoholic beverages too rapidly.

12

Binge drinking

  • 4 drinks in a row for women
  • 5 drinks in a row for men

13

alcohol dependence

  • repeated alcohol-related difficulties
  • tolerance is seen
  • links with gender, ethnicity, and depression

14

serotonin

  • A neurotransmitter synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan that affects mood (sense of calmness), behavior, appetite, and induces sleep

15

dopamine

  • neurotransmitter that leads to feelings of euphoria
  • used to form norepinephrine

16

What is a strong indicator of genetic risk?

Ability to "hold one's liquor"

17

Where is alcohol addiction frequently seen?

homeless people

18

Naltrexone

  • blocks the craving for alcohol and the pleasure of intoxication

19

Disulfiram (antabuse)

  • produces an ill feeling, such as vomitting, when drinking alcohol by blocking acetaldehyde metabolism

20

congeners

  • non-alcohol substances present in alcoholic drinks
  • ex. hops

21

acetaldehyde

  • first product of alcohol breakdown

22

Acetate (acetic acid)

  • second product of alcohol breakdown
  • further converted to fat

23

Microsomal Ethanol Oxidizing System

  • Backup system for ethanol disposal used in heavy drinkers

24

Procarcinogen

  • substance made into a carcinogen by some biochemical pathway in the body

25

Carcinogen

  • chemical that causes cancer

26

Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)

  • proportion of alcohol in the bloodstream
  • legal limit = 0.08 percent

27

Diuretic

  • drug that increases urine production
  • alcohol is a powerful diuretic

28

Resveratrol

  • a compound found in red wine which helps prevent heart attacks and strokes

29

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

  • birth defects caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy

30

teratogen

  • chemical that causes birth defects

31