Micronutrient information Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micronutrient information Deck (38)
1

Phosphorus

Group: energy release

Function: ATP transfer

Best source: abundant

2

Niacin (B3)

Function: Makes coenzymes (NAD) - anaerobic glycolysis

Best source: protein foods, whole grains

Deficiency: pellagra, fatigue, increases HDL, liver damage

Toxicity: flushing, liver toxicity

3

Riboflavin (B2)

Function: Makes coenzymes (FAD)

Best source: milk, dark leafy greens

Deficiency: rare, fatigue and weak

4

Pantothenic acid (B5)

Function: makes coenzymes (CoA) - anaerobic glycolysis

Defiency: rare, fatigue and weak

5

Thiamin (B1)

Function: makes coenzymes (TPP) - aerobic glycolysis

Best source: protein foods, whole grains

DeficiencyL beri-beri, alcoholics, fatigue and weak

 

6

Biotin (B7)

Function: makes coenzymes - fat and CHO metabolism

Deficiency: fatigue and weak

7

Chormium

Function: insulin binding

Best source: whole grains

8

Iodine

Function: component in thyroid

Best source: seafood, iodized salt

Deficiency: goiter

9

Bone growth

Cartilage -> hydroxyapatite

10

Remodeling of bone

Osteoblast - build bone, laying down matrix and mineral

Osteoclast - dissolve bone and matrix

Calcium - forms hydroxyapatite with phosphorus

11

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Calcium intake down = blood calcium down

Acts on kidney to increase kidney activation of the precursor vitamin D. Increase absorption of calcium in intestine

stimulates osteoclast - resorption of calcium from the bone

12

Calcium intake up = blood calcium up

Thyroid release calcitonin

stimulates osteoblasts - build bone, take up Ca from blood

13

Amenorrhea

cessation of menstruation

low body fat - > low estrogen

Bone demineralization -> premature osteporosis

14

Osteoporosis definition

Imbalance of bone formation and resorption from bone

15

Contributing factors of osteoporosis

Menopause, low estrogen

Male hormone decrease gradually

most people get it with age

Less vitamin D in elderly, low sun exposure

Less efficient synthesis

Less activation of precursor

16

Prevention of osteoporosis

Build good bone reserves early in life (<35)

Bone mass peaks at 35

good diet -adequate Ca

Too much will decrease iron abosrption

Weight bearing exercise

17

Factors affecting calcium status

Phosphorus

Vitamin D

Vitamin K

Vitamin A

Vitamin C

Magnesium

18

Problems with supplements

Toxicity

Competition for absorption

Low trace minerals

No phytonutrients

Not well balanced

19

Sources of viatmin A

milk, dark leafty veg

20

Sources of vitamin D

Dairy, fish oil

21

Sources of vitamin E

Wheat germ

Whole grains

Seed oil

 

22

Sources of vitamin K

dark leafy green vegetables

23

Vitamin C sources

fruits / vegetables

24

Thiamin sources: 

protein foods, whole grains

25

Niacin sources

Protein foods, whole grains

26

Riboflavin sources

Milk, dark leafy greens

27

Folate sources

dark leafy greens, beans, orange juice

28

B12 sources

animal product

29

Sources of sodium

Salt (NaCl)

30

Sources of chloride

Salt (NaCl)

31

Sources of potassium

fruits and vegetables

32

Sources of Calcium

Dairy products

sesame

benes

fish bones

tofu

tortillas

orange juice

33

Phosporus sources

abundant

34

Magensium sources

vegetables 

whole grains

35

Iodine sources

Iodized salt

Seafood

dairy products

36

Sources of iron

heme-iron: meat,fish, poultry

non-heme iron: dary leafy greens, whole grains, and beans

37

Zinc sources

meat, fish, poultry, nuts, seeds

38