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Flashcards in FN: HIV Complications Deck (33):
1

Major AIDS - Defining Illness

1. Candidiasis: oesophageal or pulmonary
2. Cryptococcal meningitis
3. Cyprtocsporidiosis
4. CMV retinitis
5. Kapsosi sarcoma
6. Lyphoma: Burkitss, primary brain
7. MAC
8. PCP
9. PML
10. Toxo
11. TB

2

TB and HIV

1. Reactivation of latent TB
2. Increased risk of disseminated TB
3. Higher bacterial loads but increased false -ve smears - fewer bacteria in sputum
4. False -ve skin tests (T cell anergy)
5. Absence of characteristic granulomas
6. Increased toxicity combing anti-TB and anti-HIV drugs
7. IRIS: HAART leads to increased CD4 - paradoxical worsening of TB symptoms

3

PCP organisms

P. Jiroveci fungus

4

PCP presentation

Dry cough
Extertional dyspnoea
Fever

5

PCP CXR

Bilateral perihilar interstitial shadowing

6

PCP Dx

Visualisation frmo sputum, BAL or lung biopsy

7

PCP Rx

1. high -dose co-trimoxazole IV
2. Or, pentamidine IVI
3. Prednisolone if severe hypoxaemia

8

PCP prophylaxis

Co-traimoazole if CD4

9

CMV causes

Mainly retinitis

10

CMV retinitis

reduced acuity
Eye pain, photophobia
Pizza sign on fudoscopy
t

11

CMV retintis Rx

Rx: ganciclovir eye implan

12

CMV can also cause

Pneumonitis
Colitis
Hepatitis

13

toxoplasmosis presentation

Posterior uveitis
Encephalitis
Focal neurology

14

Toxoplasmosis diagnosis

toxoplasma serology
Toxo isolation form LN or CNS biopsy

15

Toxoplasmosis Rx

Pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine + folate

16

Toxoplasmosis prophylaxis

Co-trimoxazole if CD4

17

Candidiasis oral

Nystatin suspension

18

Candidiasis oesophageal

Dysphgia
retrosternal pain

19

Cadidiasis oesophageal Rx

Itraconazole PO

20

Cryptococcal Meningitis presentation

Chronic Hx
Headache
Confusion
Papilloedema
CN lesions

21

Cryptococcal Meningitis Investigations

India ink CSF stain
Raised CSF pressure
CrAg in blood and CSF

22

Cryptococcal Meningitis Rx

Amphotericine B + flucytosine for 2 wks then fluconazole for 6 monthss/until CD4 >200

23

PML

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Demyelinating inflammation of brain white matter caused by JC vrus

24

PML presentation

Weakness
Paralysis
Visual loss
Cognitive decline

25

PML Ix

JC viral PCR

26

PML Rx

HAART, mefloquine may halt progression

27

Kaposi's sarcoma

Neoplasm derived from capillary endothelial cells or fibrous tissue

28

Kaposi's sarcoma caused by

HHV8 infection

29

Kaposi Rc

HAART
Radiotherapy or chemo

30

Pulmonary presentations

MAI
Fungi: aspergillus, crypto, histoplasma
CMV

31

Raised LFT and Hepatomegaly cuase

Drugs
Viral hepatitis
AIDS sclerosing cholangitis
MAI

32

Chronis diarrhoea causes

Bacteria: Salmonella. shigella, campylobacter
Protozoa: cryptosporidium, microsporidium
Virus: CMV

33

Neuro causes

CMV encephaltiis
Lymphoma

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