Flashcards in GenBioFinal - OtherMaterial Deck (44)
the universe is how many years old?
earth was formed how many years ago?
anerobic prokaryotes were discovered how many years ago?
oxygen was discovered how many years ago?
Darwin made what conclusion from his two key observations?
natural selection/survival of the fittest/evolution
cilia are what size of flagella?
1/10th the size of flagella
What happens to a cell with a cell wall in hypertonic environment?
what happens to a cell with a cell wall in hypotonic environment?
what happens to a cell without a cell wall in hypotonic environment?
what happens to a cell without a cell wall and with a cell wall in isotonic environment?
how often does lateral movement occur in the phospholipid bilayer?
1x10^7 per sec
Function of SER
membrane production (lipid assembly)
what enzymes remove phosphates? (dephosphorylation)
cortisol uses what type of receptor?
2nd Law of Thermodynamics:
all reactions in universe lead to increase in entropy
release of heat
requires input of heat
requires input of energy (not spontaneous)
gap junctions are _____ junctions.
desmosomes are ____ junctions.
does evolution violate the second law of thermodynamics?
2nd law is a closed system and evolution is an open system. so yes, it does violate it
enzymes do what to reactions?
speed them up
which protein in the electron transport step of cellular respiration receives electrons from NADH?
Protein Complex I
cdk molecules are necessary for what?
turning on/off specific processes
cdk = cyclin-depenedent kinases
goal of krebs cycle?
to eliminate carbon
enzymes in electron transport that transfer electrons?
Protein complex I, II, III - Ubiqunone
Protein complex IV - Cytochrome complex
what is monaicism?
when cells dont have the same DNA
Law of independent assortment
alleles from two different genes separate independently of each other
- removed by splicing
what fixes Okazaki fragments?
how do we read dna?
how to we build dna?
reading mrna and turning into AA
what are telomers?
repeating sequence of dna at end of chromosomes
5 steps in dna replication:
1. dna lhelicase - unzips dna
2. rna primase - adds rna primer
3. dna pol. III - copies dna
4. dna pol. I - removes rna primer and replaces it with dna
5. dna ligase - uses own energy as form of atp; gues dna backbone during repair; fixes okazaki fragments
which protein binds to the operator?
when there is no lactose what happens?
repressor protein binds to operator and transcription is stopped
when there is lactose what happens?
repressor protein binds to lactose and cannot bind to operator. transcription begins, genes are transcribed into mrna = make atp and gtp
in order for mrna, trna, and the ribosomal subunit to assemble into a complex, what energy molecule and chaperone are used?
initiation factors and gtp
error rate for dna pol. with proofreading
1/10 billion bases
error rate for rna pol.
what two mutations are deadly for a cell?
deletion and addition frameshift
no change in AA
-substitution: change 1 letter
change in 1 AA
- inversion : changing order of 2 letters