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Flashcards in GenBioFinal - OtherMaterial Deck (44)
1

the universe is how many years old?

15 billion

2

earth was formed how many years ago?

4.6 bya

3

anerobic prokaryotes were discovered how many years ago?

3.5 bya

4

oxygen was discovered how many years ago?

2.5 bya

5

Darwin made what conclusion from his two key observations?

natural selection/survival of the fittest/evolution

6

cilia are what size of flagella?

1/10th the size of flagella

7

What happens to a cell with a cell wall in hypertonic environment?

plasmolysis

8

what happens to a cell with a cell wall in hypotonic environment?

turgid

9

what happens to a cell without a cell wall in hypotonic environment?

cell lysis

10

what happens to a cell without a cell wall and with a cell wall in isotonic environment?

flaccid

11

how often does lateral movement occur in the phospholipid bilayer?

1x10^7 per sec

12

Function of SER

membrane production (lipid assembly)

13

what enzymes remove phosphates? (dephosphorylation)

phosphatases

14

cortisol uses what type of receptor?

intracellular receptor

15

2nd Law of Thermodynamics:

all reactions in universe lead to increase in entropy

16

exothermic

release of heat

17

endothermic

requires input of heat

18

endergonic

requires input of energy (not spontaneous)

19

gap junctions are _____ junctions.

communicating junction

20

desmosomes are ____ junctions.

anchoring

21

does evolution violate the second law of thermodynamics?

2nd law is a closed system and evolution is an open system. so yes, it does violate it

22

enzymes do what to reactions?

speed them up

23

which protein in the electron transport step of cellular respiration receives electrons from NADH?

Protein Complex I

24

cdk molecules are necessary for what?

turning on/off specific processes
cdk = cyclin-depenedent kinases

25

goal of krebs cycle?

to eliminate carbon

26

enzymes in electron transport that transfer electrons?

Protein complex I, II, III - Ubiqunone
Protein complex IV - Cytochrome complex

27

what is monaicism?

when cells dont have the same DNA

28

Law of independent assortment

alleles from two different genes separate independently of each other

29

noncoding regions

introns
- removed by splicing

30

what fixes Okazaki fragments?

DNA ligase

31

how do we read dna?
how to we build dna?

read: 3'-5'
build: 5'-3'

32

translation

reading mrna and turning into AA

33

what are telomers?

repeating sequence of dna at end of chromosomes

34

5 steps in dna replication:

1. dna lhelicase - unzips dna
2. rna primase - adds rna primer
3. dna pol. III - copies dna
4. dna pol. I - removes rna primer and replaces it with dna
5. dna ligase - uses own energy as form of atp; gues dna backbone during repair; fixes okazaki fragments

35

which protein binds to the operator?

repressor protein

36

when there is no lactose what happens?

repressor protein binds to operator and transcription is stopped

37

when there is lactose what happens?

repressor protein binds to lactose and cannot bind to operator. transcription begins, genes are transcribed into mrna = make atp and gtp

38

in order for mrna, trna, and the ribosomal subunit to assemble into a complex, what energy molecule and chaperone are used?

initiation factors and gtp

39

error rate for dna pol. with proofreading

1/10 billion bases

40

error rate for rna pol.

1/10,000

41

what two mutations are deadly for a cell?

deletion and addition frameshift

42

silent mutation

no change in AA
-substitution: change 1 letter

43

missense

change in 1 AA
- inversion : changing order of 2 letters

44

nonsense

early stop codon