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Flashcards in PSY111 - ch4 Deck (34)
0

detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain

sensation

1

the brains interpretation of raw sensory inputs

perception

2

the process of converting an external energy or substance into electrical activity within neurons

transduction

3

specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system

sene receptor

4

lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change 50% of time

absolute threshold

5

the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect

just noticeable difference (JND)

6

theory regarding how stimuli are detected under different conditions

signal detection theory

7

the ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously

parallel processing

8

processing in which a whole is constructed from parts

bottom-up processing

9

conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectancies

top-down processing

10

set formed when expectations influence perceptions

perceptual set

11

the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions

perceptual constancy

12

process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others

selective attention

13

parapsychologists - investigators who study __ and related psychic phenomena. There are 3 major types.

extrasensory perception (ESP)

14

predicting events before they occur through paranormal means (mechanisms that lie outside of traditional science)

precognition (ESP)

15

Reading other peoples minds

telepathy (ESP)

16

detecting the presence of objects or people that are hide from view

clairvoyance (ESP)

17

closely related to ESP is ___

psychokinesis

18

As we reach a group size of 23 people, the probability that at least 2 people share the same birthday exceeds 0.5 or 50 percent. Research demonstrates that most people markedly underestimate the likelihood of this and other coincidences, sometimes leading them to attribute these coincidences to paranormal events.

The "Birthday Paradox" (ESP)

19

rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their overall context
- german word meaning "whole"
- help to explain why we see much of our world as consisting of unified figures or forms rather than confusing jumbles of lines and curves
- these principles provide a road map for how we make sense of our perceptual worlds
- THERE ARE 3 PRINCIPLES

Gestalt principles

20

sparked interest in this subjective contours in 1955

Gaetano Kanizsa

21

when our brains provide missing information about outlines

subjective contours

22

the idea that color vision is based on our sensitivity to 3 primary colors

trichromatic theory

23

theory that we perceive colors in terms of 3 pairs of opponent colors; either red or green, blue or yellow, or black or white

opponent process theory

24

ability to judge distance and 3D relations. Uses 2 kinds of cues.

depth perception

25

stimuli the enable us to judge depth using only one eye
- 7 pictorial cues help us to perceive depth

monocular depth cues
1. relative size
2. texture gradient
3. interposition
4. linear perspective
5. height in plane
6. light and shadow

26

stimuli that enable us to judge depth using both eyes

binocular depth cues

27

specific place along the basilar membrane matches a tone with a specific pitch

complementary place/ place theory

28

rate at which neurons fire the action potential reproduces the pitch

frequency theory

29

a variation of frequency theor that works for tones between 100 and 5000Hz
- sets of neurons fire at their highest rate slightly out of sync with each other to reach overall rates up to 5000 Hz

volley theory

30

idea that pain is blocked or gated from consciousness by neural mechanisms in spinal cord

gate control theory

31

pain or discomfort felt in ann amputated limb

phantom pain

32

our sense of body position

proprioception

33

our sense of equilibrium or balance

vestibular sense