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Flashcards in PSY111 - ch6 Deck (50)
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A sea shell slug about 5 inches long that retracts its gill when pricked,, but then habituates (stops retracting its gill) if pricked repeatedly

aplysia califonicus


process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli



- repeated exposure to stimuli can lead to this and respond more strongly over time.



change in an organisms behavior or thought as a result of experience



form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response

classical (Pavlovian conditioning)


researched with dogs by classical conditioning

ivan pavlov


stimulus that elicits an automatic response

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)


automatic response to a non-neutral stimulus that does not need to be learned

unconditioned response (UCR)


response previously associated with a non-neutral stimulus that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning

conditioned response (CR)


initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus

conditioned stimulus (CS)


learning phase during which a conditioned response is established



gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus



sudden reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulus

spontaneous recovery


sudden reemergence of a conditioned response following extinction when an animal is returned to the environment in which the conditioned response was acquired

renewal effect


process by which conditioned stimuli are similar, but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus elicit a conditioned response

stimulus generalization


process by which organisms display a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus
-ex: being afraid of a tornado on tv and having different response in person

stimulus discrimination


the process by which organisms develop classically conditioned responses to conditioned stimuli that later become associated with the original conditione stimulus

higher-order conditioning


learning controlled by the consequences of the organisms behavior

operant conditioning


grasping the underlying nature of a problem
- ex: Thorndikes cats learning puzzle to being in box



small animal chamber constructed by Skinner too allow sustained periods of conditioning to be administered and behaviors to be recorded unsupervised
- electronically records an animals response and prints out a cumulative record of animals activity

Skinner box


if a response, in the presence of a stimulus, is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, the bond between stimulus and response will be strengthened
- principle asserting that if a stimulus followed by a behavior results in a reward, the stimulus is more likely to give rise to the behavior in the future

law of effect - Thorndike


outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior



presentation of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior
- ex: giving a gold star on hw to get child to keep studying

positive reinforcement


removal of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior
- ex: static is no longer present in a certain area, therefore causing you to stand there more often

negative reinforcement


outcome of consequence of a behavior that weakens the probability of the behavior
- administering a stimulus that the organism wishes to avoid; ex physical shock or spanking = positive
- taking away a stimulus that the organism wishes to experience; ex favorite toy= negative



stimulus associated with the presence of reinforcement
- unconsciously aware that it occurs all the time
- ex: snapping fingers at dog too come or waving at friend

discriminative stimulus


pattern in which we provide reinforcement following a regular number of responses
- ex: give a rat a pellet after it presses the lever in a Skinner Box 15 times

fixed ratio (FR) schedule


pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once following a specified time interval
- ex: worker get paid every friday as long as they sell one item during that 1 week interval

fixed interval (FI) schedule


pattern in which we provide reinforcement after a specific number of responses on average, with the number varying randomly
- ex: a pigeon on a ___ ___ of 10 might receive a piece of bread after 6 pecks, then 12 pecks, then 1 peck, then 21 pecks, with average of these being 10

variable ratio (VR) schedule


pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once during an average time interval, with the interval varying randomly
- ex: dog may have to perform trick during 7min interval the first time, then 1min interval the second time, then 20min interval, then 4min interval, with an average of these being 8 mins

variable interval (VI) schedule