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Flashcards in PSY111 - ch6 Deck (50)
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A sea shell slug about 5 inches long that retracts its gill when pricked,, but then habituates (stops retracting its gill) if pricked repeatedly

aplysia califonicus

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process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli

habituation

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- repeated exposure to stimuli can lead to this and respond more strongly over time.

sensitization

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change in an organisms behavior or thought as a result of experience

learning

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form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response

classical (Pavlovian conditioning)

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researched with dogs by classical conditioning

ivan pavlov

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stimulus that elicits an automatic response

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

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automatic response to a non-neutral stimulus that does not need to be learned

unconditioned response (UCR)

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response previously associated with a non-neutral stimulus that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning

conditioned response (CR)

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initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus

conditioned stimulus (CS)

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learning phase during which a conditioned response is established

acquisition

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gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus

extinction

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sudden reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulus

spontaneous recovery

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sudden reemergence of a conditioned response following extinction when an animal is returned to the environment in which the conditioned response was acquired

renewal effect

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process by which conditioned stimuli are similar, but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus elicit a conditioned response

stimulus generalization

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process by which organisms display a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus
-ex: being afraid of a tornado on tv and having different response in person

stimulus discrimination

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the process by which organisms develop classically conditioned responses to conditioned stimuli that later become associated with the original conditione stimulus

higher-order conditioning

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learning controlled by the consequences of the organisms behavior

operant conditioning

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grasping the underlying nature of a problem
- ex: Thorndikes cats learning puzzle to being in box

insight

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small animal chamber constructed by Skinner too allow sustained periods of conditioning to be administered and behaviors to be recorded unsupervised
- electronically records an animals response and prints out a cumulative record of animals activity

Skinner box

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if a response, in the presence of a stimulus, is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, the bond between stimulus and response will be strengthened
- principle asserting that if a stimulus followed by a behavior results in a reward, the stimulus is more likely to give rise to the behavior in the future

law of effect - Thorndike

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outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior

reinforcement

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presentation of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior
- ex: giving a gold star on hw to get child to keep studying

positive reinforcement

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removal of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior
- ex: static is no longer present in a certain area, therefore causing you to stand there more often

negative reinforcement

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outcome of consequence of a behavior that weakens the probability of the behavior
- administering a stimulus that the organism wishes to avoid; ex physical shock or spanking = positive
- taking away a stimulus that the organism wishes to experience; ex favorite toy= negative

punishment

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stimulus associated with the presence of reinforcement
- unconsciously aware that it occurs all the time
- ex: snapping fingers at dog too come or waving at friend

discriminative stimulus

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pattern in which we provide reinforcement following a regular number of responses
- ex: give a rat a pellet after it presses the lever in a Skinner Box 15 times

fixed ratio (FR) schedule

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pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once following a specified time interval
- ex: worker get paid every friday as long as they sell one item during that 1 week interval

fixed interval (FI) schedule

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pattern in which we provide reinforcement after a specific number of responses on average, with the number varying randomly
- ex: a pigeon on a ___ ___ of 10 might receive a piece of bread after 6 pecks, then 12 pecks, then 1 peck, then 21 pecks, with average of these being 10

variable ratio (VR) schedule

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pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once during an average time interval, with the interval varying randomly
- ex: dog may have to perform trick during 7min interval the first time, then 1min interval the second time, then 20min interval, then 4min interval, with an average of these being 8 mins

variable interval (VI) schedule

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conditioning a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behaviors that come closer and closer to the target
- coach shapes and learner takes part in actions
- initially reinforcing most or all responses that are close to the desired behavior, and then gradually fading our reinforcement for the not-exactly-right behaviors over time

shaping by successive approximations

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neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinforcer
- ex: tokens, points, etc

secondary reinforcer

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item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior
- ex: favorite food, drink, etc

primary reinforcer

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learning thats not directly observable
- we learn many things without showing them
- competence - performing what we know and performance - showing what we know

latent learning

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O - organism interprets thee stimulus before producing a response
- organisms response to a stimulus depends on what the stimulus means to it.
- ex: having two friends show up late and acting mad. one friend is apologetic and the other is rude

S-O-R psychology

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mental representation of how a physical space is organized
- ex: mental picture layout of the college campus after first few weeks

cognitive map

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learning by watching others
- ex; professors, parents, friends

observational learning

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cell in the prefrontal cortex that becomes activated by specific motions when an animal both performs and observes that action

mirror neuron

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we're evolutionarily predisposed to fear certain stimuli more than others b/c they posed a threat to our ancestors.
- more likely to fear cliffs and poisonous animals than to household items

preparedness

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an individuals preferred or optimal method of acquiring new information
- 4 types of different learners

learning style

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learners who excel at breaking down problems into different components

analytical learner

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learners that excel at viewing problems as a whole

holistic learner

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learners who prefer t talk through a problem

verbal learners

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learners who prefer to visualize problems in their heads

visual learners

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brain deficit
- brain finished myeliating at 22-24 years old

psychopathic

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socialization deficit
- under socialized b/c haven't had the right kind of experiences

sociopathic

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switching letters up when writing them out

dyslexia

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Pattern of reinforcing behavior

Schedule of reinforcement

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Reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs, resulting in faster learning but faster extinction than only occasional reinforcement

Continuous reinforcement

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Only occasional reinforcement of a behavior, resulting n slower extinction than if the behavior had been reinforced continually

Partial reinforcement