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Flashcards in MicroBioFinal Deck (101)
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1

What percentage of all the cells in/on your body are actually your cells with your DNA?

1/10th human

2

Name 2 locations on/in your body where we find normal flora

nose, skin

3

According to scientific estimates, how long ago did the anerobic prokaryotes show up?

3.5 billion years ago

4

List Darwin's 2 key observations

1. overproduction of offspring
2. individual variation

5

Who disproved spontaneous generation, and what was the experiment called?

Pasteur; Swan-neck flask experiment

6

What is Semmelweis famous for?

handwashing

7

Who accidentally discovered Penicillin?

Flemming

8

What is Jenner famous for?

*Vaccination
Vaccinia Virus

9

Who was the first to coin the term "cellulae" (cell)?

Hooke

10

Where does Russell think life may have started on earth?

hydrothermal vents in ocean floor

11

List 3 groups of organisms that fall into the category of "Eubacteria" (aka Bacteria)?

gram+, gram-, acid-fast

12

List the steps of Biofilm formation in order

1. Planktonic Organism
2. Reversible attachment w/attachment pilus
3. Irreversible attachment w/slime layer
4. Microcolony formation and quorum sensing
5. Mature biofilm
6. Release of planktonic organism

13

Which term do we define as "programmed cell death"?

apoptosis

14

List 3 physical barriers in immune system

skin, mucous membrane, sweat

15

How are macrophage activated?

signal 0

16

What do neutrophils do?

eat bacteria

17

List the 4 key symptoms of inflammation

redness, heat, edema/swelling, pain

18

Which cell mediates the fever by releasing pyrogens?

macrophage

19

After all of the complement proteins have been activated, what happens to the cell?

cytolysis

20

Which compounds do mast cells release to mediate inflammation?

histamine and heparin

21

Histamine, cytokines, and internal cell components that activate antigen independent cells

signal 0,1, or 2?

signal 0

22

Antigen recognition

signal 0,1, or 2?

signal 1

23

costimulation of B or T cells with cytokines

signal 0, 1, or 2?

signal 2

24

Precipitation

Binding to free protein antigens

25

Lysis

Activating the complement system

26

Agglutination

Binding to antigens on cells

27

Neutralization

Binding to viral antigens

28

Sally sneezed on charlie and he inhaled a pathogen. what type of transfer has occurred?

contact aersol droplets

29

What is the CD's #1 recommendation for preventing Nosocomial infection?

wash your hands

30

What type of motion do Eukaryotic flagella use?

wave