Flashcards in MicroBioFinal Deck (101)
What percentage of all the cells in/on your body are actually your cells with your DNA?
Name 2 locations on/in your body where we find normal flora
According to scientific estimates, how long ago did the anerobic prokaryotes show up?
3.5 billion years ago
List Darwin's 2 key observations
1. overproduction of offspring
2. individual variation
Who disproved spontaneous generation, and what was the experiment called?
Pasteur; Swan-neck flask experiment
What is Semmelweis famous for?
Who accidentally discovered Penicillin?
What is Jenner famous for?
Who was the first to coin the term "cellulae" (cell)?
Where does Russell think life may have started on earth?
hydrothermal vents in ocean floor
List 3 groups of organisms that fall into the category of "Eubacteria" (aka Bacteria)?
gram+, gram-, acid-fast
List the steps of Biofilm formation in order
1. Planktonic Organism
2. Reversible attachment w/attachment pilus
3. Irreversible attachment w/slime layer
4. Microcolony formation and quorum sensing
5. Mature biofilm
6. Release of planktonic organism
Which term do we define as "programmed cell death"?
List 3 physical barriers in immune system
skin, mucous membrane, sweat
How are macrophage activated?
What do neutrophils do?
List the 4 key symptoms of inflammation
redness, heat, edema/swelling, pain
Which cell mediates the fever by releasing pyrogens?
After all of the complement proteins have been activated, what happens to the cell?
Which compounds do mast cells release to mediate inflammation?
histamine and heparin
Histamine, cytokines, and internal cell components that activate antigen independent cells
signal 0,1, or 2?
signal 0,1, or 2?
costimulation of B or T cells with cytokines
signal 0, 1, or 2?
Binding to free protein antigens
Activating the complement system
Binding to antigens on cells
Binding to viral antigens
Sally sneezed on charlie and he inhaled a pathogen. what type of transfer has occurred?
contact aersol droplets
What is the CD's #1 recommendation for preventing Nosocomial infection?
wash your hands
What type of motion do Eukaryotic flagella use?
List the steps in viral replication for naked virsuses using the Lytic Cycle
4. assembly and maturation
5. release by lysis
Enveloped virus release by budding (has uncoating step)
How do enveloped viruses leave their host cells?
what are prions?
misfolded proteins that infect others
how do bacterial cells divide?
what happens to a cell with a cell wall in a hypertonic environment?
- hypertonic without cell wall = cell shrivels up
- isotonic with cell wall or no cell wall = flaccid
- hypotonic with cell wall = turgid, without cell wall = cytolysis
which channel protein move 3 billion water molecules per second across the plasma membrane?
which structure do some bacteria use to grab on to their environment?
what is the capsule form of the glycocalyx used for?
To protect bacteria from the immune system
which proteins in the plasma membrane move molecules based on their size, shape, and diffusion?
describe the gram+ cell wall
has techtoic acid that holds everything together and has a thick layer of peptidoglycan
what is the primary stain in the gram stain?
what is the composition of cytosol?
70-80% water, dissolved sugars, salts, ions, and minerals
what does the endosymbiotic theory claim?
Smaller organisms invade a larger organism and then mutualism occurs
which motor proteins carry vesicles along the cytoskeleton?
what is the error rate for RNA polymerase?
which 2 enzymes are responsible for DNA replication?
DNA helicase and DNA polymerase
what is the hereditary material for the cell?
transcribe the following sequence:
DNA to RNA
the RNA molecule responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein assembly is the ____?
if a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a ____ mRNA codon
the enzyme that copies DNA to make a molecule of mRNA is
what is transcription?
DNA is copied to mRNA
generally, plasmids carry which type of genetic material?
which enzyme converts O2 into hydrogen peroxide?
superoxide dismutase (SOD)
which organisms do not produce catalase or superoxide dismutase?
the term facultative anerobe refers to an organism that:
- prefers O2
- can live without O2
an organism that prefers to live in low pH environments is called a _______
which enzyme converts hydrogen peroxide into water and O2?
what does the Competitive Exclusion Principle predict will happen to the less advantaged organism?
1. less advantaged will be out competed by preferred organism
2. less advantaged will be forced into a new niche
during Aerobic Cellular Respiration, ATP is produced by which enzyme?
where does Krebs Cycle occur during Prokaryotic Cellular Respiration?
in the cytosol
what is the final electron acceptor for obligate anerobes?
anything but oxygen
how much ATP is produced during electron transport for Aerobic Cellular Respiration?
how does UV light kill bacteria?
by damaging DNA
removing microbes from a limited area
barring allergies, why doesn't Penicillin hurt us?
we do not make peptidogylcan
where do we get most of our antibiotics from?
what do quinolones do?
attack DNA gyrase
name the 2 biggest reasons that antibiotic resistance has increased dramatically in the last 50 years
1. *overuse in farm animals
2. being flushed down the toilet
which antibiotic resistant protein pumps the antibiotic back out of the cell?
rapid efflux pumps
which phage administration techniques seem to have the lowest interference from the immune system?
which environmental sources that we interact with daily contain large numbers of bacteriophage?
water and food
which enzyme does MRSA use to degrade the antibiotics we try to use against it?
which toxin does MRSA release that causes disease symptoms?
alpha toxins (exotoxins)
where do healthy people carry MRSA?
normal flora (nares)
what is the preferred antibiotic to use against MRSA at this point?
according to 2002 data, what percentage of nosocomial infections were MRSA infections?
which organism causes plague?
Yersinia* Pestis (UNDERLINE!)
which symptom marks the beginning of secondary pneumonic plague?
how long do you have after the 1st symptoms to treat pneumonic plague?
what is the death rate for untreated pneumonic plague?
what bacterial cell shape does Borrelia burgdorferi have?
which key feature do you look for to detect Early Localized Lyme?
stiff neck or target lesions
how are we told to prevent Lyme disease today?
1. check yourself and pets for ticks after being in wooded areas and grassy areas
2. making sure that head of tick is completely removed
name the 4 body fluids you can get HIV from
seminal fluid, vaginal secretions, blood, breast milk
what is the clinical definition of AIDS?
less than 200mL of T helper cells per mL of blood
what do protease inhibitors do?
prevent assembly of new virus
if we want to functionally cure someone, when do we need to start treatment?
within 6 weeks of exposure/infection
name on method of transmission for chicken pox
where does the chicken pox virus remain for the rest of your life in a (usually) dormant state?
nervous system tissue
which medication do we use to speed up the resolution of chicken pox symptoms?
how can we distinguish at the clinical (symptom) level between chicken pox and smallpox?
Chick Pox arrive in waves of crops and are in chest, neck, armpits, scalp
Small Pox arrive in one crop and are mainly found on face and limbs
which virus causes Smallpox?
where in the cell does smallpox replicate?
in the cytosol
what is the death rate for smallpox?
what is the treatment for smallpox?
there is no treatment
According to scientific estimates, how long ago did the aerobic eukaryotes show up?
1.7 billion years ago
According to scientific estimates, how long ago did the Oxygen show up?
2.5 billion years ago
According to scientific estimates, how long ago did was Earth formed?
4.6 billion years ago
According to scientific estimates, how old is the universe?
15 billion years old