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Flashcards in MicroBioFinal Deck (101)
1

What percentage of all the cells in/on your body are actually your cells with your DNA?

1/10th human

2

Name 2 locations on/in your body where we find normal flora

nose, skin

3

According to scientific estimates, how long ago did the anerobic prokaryotes show up?

3.5 billion years ago

4

List Darwin's 2 key observations

1. overproduction of offspring
2. individual variation

5

Who disproved spontaneous generation, and what was the experiment called?

Pasteur; Swan-neck flask experiment

6

What is Semmelweis famous for?

handwashing

7

Who accidentally discovered Penicillin?

Flemming

8

What is Jenner famous for?

*Vaccination
Vaccinia Virus

9

Who was the first to coin the term "cellulae" (cell)?

Hooke

10

Where does Russell think life may have started on earth?

hydrothermal vents in ocean floor

11

List 3 groups of organisms that fall into the category of "Eubacteria" (aka Bacteria)?

gram+, gram-, acid-fast

12

List the steps of Biofilm formation in order

1. Planktonic Organism
2. Reversible attachment w/attachment pilus
3. Irreversible attachment w/slime layer
4. Microcolony formation and quorum sensing
5. Mature biofilm
6. Release of planktonic organism

13

Which term do we define as "programmed cell death"?

apoptosis

14

List 3 physical barriers in immune system

skin, mucous membrane, sweat

15

How are macrophage activated?

signal 0

16

What do neutrophils do?

eat bacteria

17

List the 4 key symptoms of inflammation

redness, heat, edema/swelling, pain

18

Which cell mediates the fever by releasing pyrogens?

macrophage

19

After all of the complement proteins have been activated, what happens to the cell?

cytolysis

20

Which compounds do mast cells release to mediate inflammation?

histamine and heparin

21

Histamine, cytokines, and internal cell components that activate antigen independent cells

signal 0,1, or 2?

signal 0

22

Antigen recognition

signal 0,1, or 2?

signal 1

23

costimulation of B or T cells with cytokines

signal 0, 1, or 2?

signal 2

24

Precipitation

Binding to free protein antigens

25

Lysis

Activating the complement system

26

Agglutination

Binding to antigens on cells

27

Neutralization

Binding to viral antigens

28

Sally sneezed on charlie and he inhaled a pathogen. what type of transfer has occurred?

contact aersol droplets

29

What is the CD's #1 recommendation for preventing Nosocomial infection?

wash your hands

30

What type of motion do Eukaryotic flagella use?

wave

31

List the steps in viral replication for naked virsuses using the Lytic Cycle

1. attach
2. penetration
3. biosynthesis
4. assembly and maturation
5. release by lysis

Enveloped virus release by budding (has uncoating step)

32

How do enveloped viruses leave their host cells?

budding

33

what are prions?

misfolded proteins that infect others

34

how do bacterial cells divide?

binary fission

35

what happens to a cell with a cell wall in a hypertonic environment?

plasmolysis occurs

- hypertonic without cell wall = cell shrivels up
- isotonic with cell wall or no cell wall = flaccid
- hypotonic with cell wall = turgid, without cell wall = cytolysis

36

which channel protein move 3 billion water molecules per second across the plasma membrane?

aquaporins

37

which structure do some bacteria use to grab on to their environment?

attachment pilus

38

what is the capsule form of the glycocalyx used for?

To protect bacteria from the immune system

39

which proteins in the plasma membrane move molecules based on their size, shape, and diffusion?

carrier proteins

40

describe the gram+ cell wall

has techtoic acid that holds everything together and has a thick layer of peptidoglycan

41

what is the primary stain in the gram stain?

crystal violet

42

what is the composition of cytosol?

70-80% water, dissolved sugars, salts, ions, and minerals

43

what does the endosymbiotic theory claim?

Smaller organisms invade a larger organism and then mutualism occurs

44

which motor proteins carry vesicles along the cytoskeleton?

dynein arms

45

what is the error rate for RNA polymerase?

1/10,000

46

which 2 enzymes are responsible for DNA replication?

DNA helicase and DNA polymerase

47

what is the hereditary material for the cell?

DNA

48

transcribe the following sequence:
AGCTAGTTAGCA

UCGAUCAAUCGU

DNA to RNA

49

the RNA molecule responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein assembly is the ____?

tRNA

50

if a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a ____ mRNA codon

UCG

51

the enzyme that copies DNA to make a molecule of mRNA is

RNA polymerase

52

what is transcription?

DNA is copied to mRNA

53

generally, plasmids carry which type of genetic material?

nonessential genes

54

which enzyme converts O2 into hydrogen peroxide?

superoxide dismutase (SOD)

55

which organisms do not produce catalase or superoxide dismutase?

obligate anerobe

56

the term facultative anerobe refers to an organism that:

- prefers O2
- can live without O2

57

an organism that prefers to live in low pH environments is called a _______

acidophile

58

which enzyme converts hydrogen peroxide into water and O2?

catalase (CAT)

59

what does the Competitive Exclusion Principle predict will happen to the less advantaged organism?

1. less advantaged will be out competed by preferred organism
2. less advantaged will be forced into a new niche

60

during Aerobic Cellular Respiration, ATP is produced by which enzyme?

ATP synthase

61

where does Krebs Cycle occur during Prokaryotic Cellular Respiration?

in the cytosol

62

what is the final electron acceptor for obligate anerobes?

anything but oxygen

63

how much ATP is produced during electron transport for Aerobic Cellular Respiration?

34 ATP

64

how does UV light kill bacteria?

by damaging DNA

65

define degerming

removing microbes from a limited area

66

barring allergies, why doesn't Penicillin hurt us?

we do not make peptidogylcan

67

where do we get most of our antibiotics from?

other bacteria

68

what do quinolones do?

attack DNA gyrase

69

name the 2 biggest reasons that antibiotic resistance has increased dramatically in the last 50 years

1. *overuse in farm animals
2. being flushed down the toilet

70

which antibiotic resistant protein pumps the antibiotic back out of the cell?

rapid efflux pumps

71

which phage administration techniques seem to have the lowest interference from the immune system?

orally; locally

72

which environmental sources that we interact with daily contain large numbers of bacteriophage?

water and food

73

MRSA
which enzyme does MRSA use to degrade the antibiotics we try to use against it?

beta lactamase

74

MRSA
which toxin does MRSA release that causes disease symptoms?

alpha toxins (exotoxins)

75

MRSA
where do healthy people carry MRSA?

normal flora (nares)

76

MRSA
what is the preferred antibiotic to use against MRSA at this point?

IV Vencomyicin

77

MRSA
according to 2002 data, what percentage of nosocomial infections were MRSA infections?

10%

78

Plague
which organism causes plague?

Yersinia* Pestis (UNDERLINE!)

79

Plague
which symptom marks the beginning of secondary pneumonic plague?

bloody sputum

80

Plague
how long do you have after the 1st symptoms to treat pneumonic plague?

18 hours

81

Plague
what is the death rate for untreated pneumonic plague?

100%

82

Lyme
what bacterial cell shape does Borrelia burgdorferi have?

spirochete

83

Lyme
which key feature do you look for to detect Early Localized Lyme?

stiff neck or target lesions

84

Lyme
how are we told to prevent Lyme disease today?

1. check yourself and pets for ticks after being in wooded areas and grassy areas
2. making sure that head of tick is completely removed

85

AIDS
name the 4 body fluids you can get HIV from

seminal fluid, vaginal secretions, blood, breast milk

86

AIDS
what is the clinical definition of AIDS?

less than 200mL of T helper cells per mL of blood

87

AIDS
what do protease inhibitors do?

prevent assembly of new virus

88

AIDS
if we want to functionally cure someone, when do we need to start treatment?

within 6 weeks of exposure/infection

89

Chicken Pox
name on method of transmission for chicken pox

contact aersol

90

Chicken Pox
where does the chicken pox virus remain for the rest of your life in a (usually) dormant state?

nervous system tissue

91

Chicken Pox
which medication do we use to speed up the resolution of chicken pox symptoms?

Acyclovir

92

Chicken Pox
how can we distinguish at the clinical (symptom) level between chicken pox and smallpox?

Chick Pox arrive in waves of crops and are in chest, neck, armpits, scalp

Small Pox arrive in one crop and are mainly found on face and limbs

93

Smallpox
which virus causes Smallpox?

Variola Major/Minor

94

Smallpox
where in the cell does smallpox replicate?

in the cytosol

95

Smallpox
what is the death rate for smallpox?

40%

96

Smallpox
what is the treatment for smallpox?

there is no treatment

97

According to scientific estimates, how long ago did the aerobic eukaryotes show up?

1.7 billion years ago

98

According to scientific estimates, how long ago did the Oxygen show up?

2.5 billion years ago

99

According to scientific estimates, how long ago did was Earth formed?

4.6 billion years ago

100

According to scientific estimates, how old is the universe?

15 billion years old

100

Which antibody class helps to mediate inflammatory response?

IgE