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Flashcards in PSY111 - ch8 Deck (25)
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elements of communication that aren't part of the content of language but are critical to interpreting its meaning

extralinguistic information

1

smallest meaningful unit of speech

morpheme

2

category of sounds our vocal apparatus produces

phoneme

3

grammatical rules that govern how words are composed into meaningful strings

syntax

4

largely arbitrary system of communication that combines symbols (such as words or gestural signs) in rule-based ways to create meaning

language

5

meaning derived from words and sentences

semantics

6

intentional vocalization that lacks specific meaning

babbling

7

early period of language developed when children use single-word phrases to convey an entire thought

one word stage

8

language developed by members of a deaf community that uses visual rather than auditoory communication

sign language

9

proficient and fluent at speaking and comprehending two distinct languages

bilingual

10

awareness of how language is structured an used

metalinguistic

11

systems of signs invented by deaf children of hearing parents who receive no language input

homesign

12

allowing an infinite number of unique sentences to be created by combining words in novel ways

generative

13

account of language acquisition that suggests children are born with some basic knowledge oh how language works

nativist

14

hypothetical organ in the brain in which nativists believe knowledge of syntax resides

language acquisition device

15

account of language acquisition that proposes children infer what words and sentences mean from context and social interactions

social pragmatics

16

view that all thought is represented verbally and that, as a result, our language defines our thinking

linguistic determinism

17

reading strategy that involves identifying common words based on their appearance without having to sound them out

whole word recognition

18

reading strategy that involves sounding out words by drawing correspondences between printed letters and sounds

phonetic decomposition

19

any mental activity or processing of information, including learning, remembering, and perceiving, communicating, believing, and deciding

thinking

20

our knowledge and ideas about a set of objects, actions, and or characteristics that share core properties

concept

21

the process of selecting among a set of possible alternatives

decision making

22

generating a cognitive strategy to accomplish a goal

problem solving

23

phenomenon of becoming stuck in a specific problem-solving strategy, inhibiting our ability to generate alternatives

mental set

24

difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose can be used for another

functional fixedness