Flashcards in GI 11 - Malignancies Deck (17):
What are the 2 types of oesophageal carcinoma? Which is the most common?
- Squamous cell = most common
What exposures or deficiencies are associated with squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma?
- Vitamin A/Riboflavin deficiencies
What is the most common type of gastric cancer? Name the 2 subtypes of this:
- Diffuse type = signet ring cells
- Intestinal type = glandular structure
Where is the Oesophageal cancer belt?
Across Asia from Iraq to NW China
In which areas of the world is gastric cancer common?
- East Asia
- South America
Where does gastric adenocarcinoma metastasise to?
- Lymph nodes
Name the most common GI lymphoma:
Which cancer is associated with helicobacter pylori infection?
Which cancer may be treated with antibiotics? How?
- can be caused by helicobacter pylori infection
Describe the step-wise adenoma --> carcinoma sequence:
- Normal epithelia acquires APC mutation = early adenoma
- acquires KRAS mutation = intermediate adenoma
- acquires Smad 2/4 mutation = late adenoma
- acquires p53 mutation = carcinoma
What is the common main difference between left and right-sided colorectal adenocarcinoma?
Right-sided = fungating
Left-sided = stenotic
Where are the common sites of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastases?
- Peritoneum (direct invasion)
- Liver (blood)
- Lungs (blood)
Which tumour marker is released by colorectal adenocarcinoma?
Which GI tumour releases CEA? What is CEA?
Which tumour marker is released by hepatocellular carcinoma?
Which GI tumour releases AFP?