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Flashcards in GI 11 - Malignancies Deck (17):
1

What are the 2 types of oesophageal carcinoma? Which is the most common?

- Squamous cell = most common
- Adenocarcinoma

2

What exposures or deficiencies are associated with squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma?

- HPV
- Tannin
- Vitamin A/Riboflavin deficiencies

3

What is the most common type of gastric cancer? Name the 2 subtypes of this:

Gastric adenacarcinoma:
- Diffuse type = signet ring cells
- Intestinal type = glandular structure

4

Where is the Oesophageal cancer belt?

Across Asia from Iraq to NW China

5

In which areas of the world is gastric cancer common?

- East Asia
- South America

6

Where does gastric adenocarcinoma metastasise to?

- Lymph nodes
- Liver
- Peritoneum
- Ovaries

7

Name the most common GI lymphoma:

Gastric lymphoma

8

Which cancer is associated with helicobacter pylori infection?

Gastric lymphoma

9

Which cancer may be treated with antibiotics? How?

Gastric lymphoma
- can be caused by helicobacter pylori infection

10

Describe the step-wise adenoma --> carcinoma sequence:

- Normal epithelia acquires APC mutation = early adenoma
- acquires KRAS mutation = intermediate adenoma
- acquires Smad 2/4 mutation = late adenoma
- acquires p53 mutation = carcinoma
= metastasis

11

What is the common main difference between left and right-sided colorectal adenocarcinoma?

Right-sided = fungating
Left-sided = stenotic

12

Where are the common sites of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastases?

- Peritoneum (direct invasion)
- Liver (blood)
- Lungs (blood)

13

Which tumour marker is released by colorectal adenocarcinoma?

CEA

14

Which GI tumour releases CEA? What is CEA?

Colorectal adenocarcinoma

Carcinoembryonic antigen

15

Which tumour marker is released by hepatocellular carcinoma?

AFP

16

Which GI tumour releases AFP?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

17

Which primary cancers often metastasise to the Liver?

- Breast
- Bone
- Lung