Resp 8 - Tuberculosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Resp 8 - Tuberculosis Deck (21):
1

Describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis:

- Obligate aerobe
- Non-motile
- Rod-shaped
- Slow growing
- Acid+Alcohol fast

2

What stain would you use to test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

- Ziehl-Nielson stain
- Auramine stain

3

How is TB transmitted?

Aerosol droplets = sneezing/coughing/talking

4

Describe the granuloma formed in Tuberculosis:

Infected macrophages + Langhans giant cells surrounded by foamy macrophages, surrounded by T lymphocytes in a fibrous cuff, with central caseation.

5

In what percentage of people with latent TB, does the infection go on to cause post-primary TB?

5%

6

What are the risk factors for post-primary TB?

Immunocompromised:
- HIV+
- IVDU
- Organ transplant
- Low body weight
- Haematological malignancy
- Severe kidney disease
- Diabetes mellitus
- Prolonged corticosteroid use

7

Give the symptoms of TB:

- Fever
- Night sweats
- Severe cough
- Weight loss/anorexia
- Tiredness
- Haemoptysis
- Breathlessness (if pleural effusion)

8

Describe the CXR findings of a patient with TB:

- Ill-defined patchy consolidation +/- central cavity formation (appears darker)
- Usually in apex of lung
- May see fibrosis (forms during healing)
- Pleural effusion may be present

9

What is Scrofula?

Cervical lymph node TB infection

10

What is Pott's disease?

Spinal TB, usually thoracolumbar
= progressive bone destruction

11

How can you induce sputum production?

Give patient nebulised hypertonic saline solution, which liquefies secretions and promotes coughing

12

What could cause a false positive Mantoux test?

BCG vaccination

13

What could cause a false negative Mantoux test?

Immunocompromisation
ie HIV+, IVDU etc

14

What are the main, 1st line drugs used to treat TB?

1) Rifampicin
2) Isoniazid
3) Pyrazinamide
4) Ethambutol

15

Which anti-TB drug causes orange secretions?

Rifampicin

16

Which anti-TB drug's are toxic to hepatocytes?

- Isoniazid
- Pyrazinamide

17

Which anti-TB drug causes visual disturbances?

Ethambutol

18

Which vitamin is given as a supplement during an antibiotic course for TB?

Vitamin D = accelerates recovery

19

What are the risk factors for MDR TB?

- Previous TB prescription
- HIV+
- Known contact with MDR TB

20

What type of TB does the BCG mainly vaccinate against?

- TB meningitis
- Miliary TB

21

Who is at particular risk of developing TB in the UK?

- HIV+
- IVDU's
- Overcrowded areas: Prisons/homeless shelters/nursing homes
- People exposed to high-risk people: healthcare workers, family