Flashcards in Resp 11 - Interstitial Lung Disease Deck (20):
Define 'interstitial space' in the lungs:
Potential space between alveolar cells and the capillary basement membrane, only apparent during disease states, when it may contain fibrous tissue/cells/fluid.
What are some common occupational causes of interstitial lung disease?
- Coal dust
What are some common treatments causing interstitial lung disease?
What is the name given to idiopathic interstitial lung disease?
List some signs/symptoms of interstitial lung disease:
- Shortness of breath
- Dry cough
- Reduced exercise tolerance
- Decreased bilateral chest movement
What are the 2 common types of extrinsic allergic alveolitis?
Acute = 'Farmers lung'
- exposure to antigen from T.actinomycetes, often in mouldy hay
Chronic = 'Bird fanciers lung'
- long term exposure to antigens from pigeons/budgies
What are the 2 types of interstitial lung disease caused by an overactive immune system?
2) Extrinsic allergic alveolitis
Define pleural space:
Potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura.
Allows movement of the lung and chest wall with breathing.
What are the 4 types of pleural effusion?
1) Haemothorax - blood
2) Chylothorax - chyle
3) Empyema - pus
4) Simple effusion - serous
What is chyle?
Milky fluid containing lymph and free fatty acids, from the lacteals of the small intestine
- Severe, sharp, 'knife-like' pain
- Worse on inspiration and large movements (sneezing, coughing, laughing)
- Inflammation of pleura
- If involved diaphragmatic pleura = pain in shoulder on same side
List some causes of pleurisy:
- Infection (commonly viral)
- Pulmonary embolism
- Chest surgery
- Lung disease ie Asbestosis
- Autoimmune disorders ie SLE, RA, IBD
- Drugs ie Procanamide, Isoniazid
Build up of air/gas in pleural space
What are the 4 types of pneumothorax?
1) Primary spontaneous
2) Secondary to lung disease
What may increase the risk of developing a spontaneous pneumothorax?
- Family history
What are the signs/symptoms of a pneumothorax?
- Hyper-resonance over collapsed area
- Decreased/absent breath sounds
- Pleuritic chest pain
What are the main side effects of a chest drain?
- Infection risk
- Painful (irritates nerves between ribs)
Define tension pneumothorax:
Progressive buildup of air in pleural space, due to lung laceration allowing air to escape to pleura and not return o lung
What are the signs of a tension pneumothorax?
- Hyper-resonance + no breath sounds on affected side