Resp 11 - Interstitial Lung Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Resp 11 - Interstitial Lung Disease Deck (20):
1

Define 'interstitial space' in the lungs:

Potential space between alveolar cells and the capillary basement membrane, only apparent during disease states, when it may contain fibrous tissue/cells/fluid.

2

What are some common occupational causes of interstitial lung disease?

- Asbestos
- Silica
- Coal dust

3

What are some common treatments causing interstitial lung disease?

- Radiation
- Chemotherapy
- Methotrexate
- Nitrofurantoin
- Amiodarone

4

What is the name given to idiopathic interstitial lung disease?

Fibrosing alveolitis

5

List some signs/symptoms of interstitial lung disease:

- Shortness of breath
- Dry cough
- Reduced exercise tolerance
- Tachypnoea
- Decreased bilateral chest movement
- Coarsecrackles
- Tachycardia

6

What are the 2 common types of extrinsic allergic alveolitis?

Acute = 'Farmers lung'
- exposure to antigen from T.actinomycetes, often in mouldy hay

Chronic = 'Bird fanciers lung'
- long term exposure to antigens from pigeons/budgies

7

What are the 2 types of interstitial lung disease caused by an overactive immune system?

1) Sarcoidosis
2) Extrinsic allergic alveolitis

8

Define pleural space:

Potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura.
Allows movement of the lung and chest wall with breathing.

9

What are the 4 types of pleural effusion?

1) Haemothorax - blood
2) Chylothorax - chyle
3) Empyema - pus
4) Simple effusion - serous

10

What is chyle?

Milky fluid containing lymph and free fatty acids, from the lacteals of the small intestine

11

Describe pleurisy:

- Severe, sharp, 'knife-like' pain
- Worse on inspiration and large movements (sneezing, coughing, laughing)
- Inflammation of pleura
- If involved diaphragmatic pleura = pain in shoulder on same side

12

List some causes of pleurisy:

- Infection (commonly viral)
- Pulmonary embolism
- Cancer
- Chest surgery
- Lung disease ie Asbestosis
- Autoimmune disorders ie SLE, RA, IBD
- Drugs ie Procanamide, Isoniazid

13

Define pneumothorax:

Build up of air/gas in pleural space

14

What are the 4 types of pneumothorax?

1) Primary spontaneous
2) Secondary to lung disease
3) Iatrogenic/traumatic
4) Tension

15

What may increase the risk of developing a spontaneous pneumothorax?

- Smoking
- Family history

16

What are the signs/symptoms of a pneumothorax?

- Distress
- Sweating
- Tachycarida
- Hyper-resonance over collapsed area
- Decreased/absent breath sounds
- Pleuritic chest pain
- Dyspnoea

17

What are the main side effects of a chest drain?

- Infection risk
- Painful (irritates nerves between ribs)

18

Define tension pneumothorax:

Progressive buildup of air in pleural space, due to lung laceration allowing air to escape to pleura and not return o lung

19

What are the signs of a tension pneumothorax?

- Tachycardia
- Hypotension
- Hypxoaemia
- Hyper-resonance + no breath sounds on affected side

20

What is the treatment for a tension pneumothorax?

- Cannula into affected side (2nd intercostal space, mid-clavicular line)
- O2