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Flashcards in GI 1 - Basics + Common diseases Deck (30):
1

What is the approx. length of the oesophagus?

~ 25 cm

2

What are the 4 mechanisms which prevent reflux from the lower oesophageal sphincter?

1) Right crus of diaphragm acts as a pinch-cock
2) Acute angle from oesophagus to stomach
3) Mucosal folds of oesophagogastric junction acts as a valve
4) Abdominal pressure is higher than thoracic pressure

3

Name the 5 regions of the stomach:

- Cardia
- Fundus
- Body
- Antrum
- Pylorus

4

Behind which laryngeal cartilage does the upper oesophageal sphincter lie?

Cricoid cartilage

5

In which part of the GI tract is the majority of fluid absorbed?

Small intestine

6

Which parts of the GI tract are not controlled by autonomic nerves?

- Mouth
- 1st 1/3rd of Oesophagus
- External anal sphincter

7

Name the 2 main nerve plexuses of the enteric nervous system, which control GI motility:

1) Auerbach's myenteric plexus
2) Meissner's submucosal plexus

8

Where is Auerbach's myenteric plexus located?

Between the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of muscularis externa, surrounding the GI tract

9

Where is Meissner's submucosal plexus located?

Beneath muscularis externa, on top of the submucosa, surrounding the GI tract

10

Name the nerve plexus which lies between the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of muscularis externa, surrounding the GI tract:

Auerbach's myenteric plexus

11

Name the nerve plexus which lies beneath muscularis externa, on top of the submucosa, surrounding the GI tract:

Meissner's submucosal plexus

12

Name the common complications of chronic acid reflux:

- Oesophagitis
- Barrett's oesophagus
- Oesophageal cancer

13

What causes Barrett's oesophagus usually?

Chronic acid reflux

14

Describe the pathology of Barrett's oesophagus:

Metaplasia of normal non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelia of lower oesophagus, into simple columnar gastric epithelium

15

Name the 2 most common types of oesophageal cancer:

- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Adenocarcinoma

16

What are the main risk factors predisposing someone to oesophageal cancer?

- Male sex
- Age
- Smoking
- Heavy drinking
- Obesity
- Acid reflux

17

What are oesophageal varices?

Abnormally enlarged veins in oesophagus, prone to rupturing and bleeding

18

What causes oesophageal varices?

Portal hypertension, commonly dues to:
- Liver cirrhosis
- Thrombosis
- Schistosomiasis

19

List some sites of portosystemic anastamoses:

- Lower oesophagus
- Anal canal
- Umbilical area

20

Portal hypertension can result in caput medusae. What is this?

Abnormally enlarged and dilated veins radiating from the umbilicus across the abdomen.

21

What are the 2 main types of dysphagia?

1) Oropharyngeal dysphagia
2) Oesophageal dysphagia

22

What is dysphagia?

Difficulty swallowing

23

What is oropharyngeal dysphagia?

Difficulty swallowing - cannot initiate the swallow

24

What is oesophageal dysphagia?

Food sticking in the oesophagus AFTER swallowing

25

List some common causes of dysphagia:

- Stroke
- GERD
- Dementia
- Benign/malignant tumours
- Scar tissue

26

What is odynophagia?

Painful swallowing

27

What is achalasia?

Dysphagia in which the lower oesophageal sphincter doesn't relax properly, so food cannot pass into the stomach

28

How will dysphagia caused by a malignancy often present?

- Coughing
- Hoarse voice
- Haematemesis
- Acid reflux
- Progressively harder to swallow

29

What are the common causes of peptic ulceration?

- Helicobacter pylori
- Aspirin/NSAIDs/Steroids (chronic use)
- Stress
- Alcohol
- Smoking

30

How does the chronic use of aspirin/NSAIDs/steroids lead to peptic ulceration?

- These drugs reduce prostaglandin secretion
- Prostaglandins maintain the gastric mucosal defence system, by regulating bicarbonate and mucous secretion, and inhibiting acid secretion