Flashcards in Resp 2 - Anatomy 2 Deck (39):
Describe the position of the apex of the lung/pleura:
Apex = 3cm above medial 1/3rd of clavicle
What is the costodiaphragmatic recess?
Inferior part of pleural cavity not occupied by lung (between diaphragm and rib cage)
Describe the lobes and fissures of the left lung:
2 lobes = upper and lower
1 fissure = oblique fissure
Describe the lobes and fissures of the right lung:
3 lobes: upper, middle and lower
2 fissures: Oblique and horizontal
Describe the surface markings of the oblique fissure:
From T2 to 6th costal cartilage
Describe the surface markings of the horizontal fissure:
From oblique fissure in mid-axillary line, to 4th costal cartilage
Describe the positions of the diaphragm domes:
Left dome = 5th intercostal space
Right dome = 5th rib
Name the gap formed by abduction of the vocal cords:
Describe the shapes of the cartilage found in the lower respiratory tract:
Trachea = C shaped
Primary bronchi = Circular cartilage
Secondary bronchi = Irregular islands of cartilage
What is the approx. length and width of the trachea?
10 x 2.5 cm
Why does Asthma have more of an effect on bronchiole smooth muscle, than that in the primary/secondary bronchi?
No cartilage in bronchiole (cartilage present in primary and secondary bronchi)
= Smooth muscle can overconstrict
Name the type of epithelium in bronchioles (excl. respiratory bronchioles):
Simple ciliated columnar + Clara cells
Name the type of epithelium found in respiratory bronchioles):
Simple cuboidal (some ciliated) + Clara cells
In what areas of the respiratory tract can you find Clara cells?
- Alveolar ducts
As you move down the respiratory tract, which cells slowly replace goblet cells?
What is the main function of Clara cells?
Secrete surfactant lipoprotein
= prevents walls sticking together during expiration
What measurable marker do Clara cells secrete?
Clara cell protein CC16
If [CC16] is decreased in a bronchoalveolar lavage, what has happened?
= damaged Clara cells = less CC16 produced
If [CC16] is increased in serum, what has happened?
Leakage across air-blood barrier
What types of fibres form the meshwork of alveoli?
Name the cell types found in alveoli:
- T1 pneumocytes
- T2 pneumocytes
What is the difference between T1 and T2 pneumocytes?
T1 = squamous epithelial cells which allow gas exchange
T2 = cuboidal epithelial cells which secrete surfactant
What percentage of the alveoli surface area do T1 and T2 pneumocytes cover?
T1 = 90%
T2 = 10%
What prevents the lower airway walls sticking together during expiration?
Name the 2 cell types which secrete surfactant:
- T2 pneumocytes
- Clara cells
Why do the lungs have 2 circulations?
Pulmonary circulation = gas exchange
Bronchial circulation = nutrient exchange to tissues
Name the arteries which supply the lung tissue with O2:
Name the most common causes of Emphysema:
- alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
Describe the pathology of Emphysema:
Destruction of alveolar walls and permanent enlargement of air spaces
= bronchial collapse, trapping air in alveoli
Is Emphysema a restrictive or obstructive deficit?
Name the inherited deficiency that leads to early Emphysema development:
Why do patients with Emphysema often breath with pursed lips?
Maintains high pressure in lungs during expiration, preventing bronchiole collapse
Name the cartilage/bones which form the anterior bony thorax:
- Costal cartilage
- Sternum (Manubrium, Body and Xiphisternum)
Which ribs are 'true' and why?
Ribs 1-7, as directly connected to sternum (via costal cartilage)
Which ribs are 'false' and why?
Ribs 8-12, as not directly connected to sternum
Is the head and tubercle of a rib located anteriorly or posteriorly?
What part of a rib protects the associated vessels and nerves?
What bones articulate at the costo-transverse joint?
- Tubercle of rib
- Transverse costal facet of vertebrae