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Flashcards in Resp 2 - Anatomy 2 Deck (39):
1

Describe the position of the apex of the lung/pleura:

Apex = 3cm above medial 1/3rd of clavicle

2

What is the costodiaphragmatic recess?

Inferior part of pleural cavity not occupied by lung (between diaphragm and rib cage)

3

Describe the lobes and fissures of the left lung:

2 lobes = upper and lower
1 fissure = oblique fissure

4

Describe the lobes and fissures of the right lung:

3 lobes: upper, middle and lower
2 fissures: Oblique and horizontal

5

Describe the surface markings of the oblique fissure:

From T2 to 6th costal cartilage

6

Describe the surface markings of the horizontal fissure:

From oblique fissure in mid-axillary line, to 4th costal cartilage

7

Describe the positions of the diaphragm domes:

Left dome = 5th intercostal space
Right dome = 5th rib

8

Name the gap formed by abduction of the vocal cords:

Rima glottis

9

Describe the shapes of the cartilage found in the lower respiratory tract:

Trachea = C shaped
Primary bronchi = Circular cartilage
Secondary bronchi = Irregular islands of cartilage

10

What is the approx. length and width of the trachea?

10 x 2.5 cm

11

Why does Asthma have more of an effect on bronchiole smooth muscle, than that in the primary/secondary bronchi?

No cartilage in bronchiole (cartilage present in primary and secondary bronchi)
= Smooth muscle can overconstrict

12

Name the type of epithelium in bronchioles (excl. respiratory bronchioles):

Simple ciliated columnar + Clara cells

13

Name the type of epithelium found in respiratory bronchioles):

Simple cuboidal (some ciliated) + Clara cells

14

In what areas of the respiratory tract can you find Clara cells?

- Bronchioles
- Alveolar ducts

15

As you move down the respiratory tract, which cells slowly replace goblet cells?

Clara cells

16

What is the main function of Clara cells?

Secrete surfactant lipoprotein
= prevents walls sticking together during expiration

17

What measurable marker do Clara cells secrete?

Clara cell protein CC16

18

If [CC16] is decreased in a bronchoalveolar lavage, what has happened?

Lung damage
= damaged Clara cells = less CC16 produced

19

If [CC16] is increased in serum, what has happened?

Leakage across air-blood barrier

20

What types of fibres form the meshwork of alveoli?

Reticulin
Elastic

21

Name the cell types found in alveoli:

- T1 pneumocytes
- T2 pneumocytes

22

What is the difference between T1 and T2 pneumocytes?

T1 = squamous epithelial cells which allow gas exchange
T2 = cuboidal epithelial cells which secrete surfactant

23

What percentage of the alveoli surface area do T1 and T2 pneumocytes cover?

T1 = 90%
T2 = 10%

24

What prevents the lower airway walls sticking together during expiration?

Surfactant

25

Name the 2 cell types which secrete surfactant:

- T2 pneumocytes
- Clara cells

26

Why do the lungs have 2 circulations?

Pulmonary circulation = gas exchange
Bronchial circulation = nutrient exchange to tissues

27

Name the arteries which supply the lung tissue with O2:

Bronchial arteries

28

Name the most common causes of Emphysema:

- Smoking
- alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

29

Describe the pathology of Emphysema:

Destruction of alveolar walls and permanent enlargement of air spaces
= bronchial collapse, trapping air in alveoli

30

Is Emphysema a restrictive or obstructive deficit?

Obstructive

31

Name the inherited deficiency that leads to early Emphysema development:

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

32

Why do patients with Emphysema often breath with pursed lips?

Maintains high pressure in lungs during expiration, preventing bronchiole collapse

33

Name the cartilage/bones which form the anterior bony thorax:

- Costal cartilage
- Sternum (Manubrium, Body and Xiphisternum)

34

Which ribs are 'true' and why?

Ribs 1-7, as directly connected to sternum (via costal cartilage)

35

Which ribs are 'false' and why?

Ribs 8-12, as not directly connected to sternum

36

Is the head and tubercle of a rib located anteriorly or posteriorly?

Posteriorly

37

What part of a rib protects the associated vessels and nerves?

Costal groove

38

What bones articulate at the costo-transverse joint?

- Tubercle of rib
- Transverse costal facet of vertebrae

39

What bones articulate at the costo-vertebral joint?

- Head of rib
- Superior costal facet of corresponding vertebrae
- Inferior costal facet of vertebrae above