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Flashcards in Infection 1 - Basics Deck (40):
1

Define Infection:

Invasion of host's tissues by microorganisms, and subsequent disease caused by microbial multiplication, toxins, and host response

2

Give some infections which spread via air by droplets:

- Common cold
- Influenza
- Meningococcal disease
- Rubella
- Pertussis
- Mumps

3

Give some infections which spread via air by aerosol:

- Chickenpox
- Measles
- TB

4

Give some infections which spread via faecal-oral route:

- Camphylobacter
- Giardiasis
- Hand, Foot + Mouth
- Hepatitis A
- Viral Meningitis
- Rotavirus
- Salmonella
- Shigella
- C. albicans
- Worms
- Yersinia
- Polio

5

Give some infections which spread via skin/mucous membrane contact:

- Head lice
- Chickenpox
- Herpes simplex
- Conjunctivitis
- Warts
- Ringworm
- Scabies
- Impetigo
- S. aureus

6

Give some infections which spread via blood or other body fluid:

- HIV
- Hepatitis B/C
- Cytomegalovirus
- Glandular fever
- Diptheria

7

Give some examples of infections which are sexually transferred:

- Gonorrhoea
- Chlamydia
- Genital warts
- Genital herpes
- Hepatitis B
- Syphilis
- Trichomoniasis

8

Give some examples of infections which are spread via food/water:

- Salmonella
- Shigella
- Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome
- Botulism
- Camphylobacter
- Cholera
- Listeria
- Typhoid
- Yersinia

9

Give some examples of infections which are transferred during pregnancy:

- Rubella
- HIV
- Chickenpox
- Hepatitis B

10

Give some examples of infections which are spread via contact with animals:

- Rabies
- Toxoplasmosis
- Dengue fever
- Malaria

11

Give some examples of infections which are spread via contact with water/soil:

- Legionella
- Tetanus
- Amoebic meningitis

12

List some disease determinants of infections:

- Pathogen virulence factors
- Inoculum size of pathogens
- Antimicrobial resistance of pathogen
- Site of infection in host
- Co-morbidities of host

13

List some virulence factors microorganisms may have:

- Capsule
- Toxins (endo/exo)
- Siderophores
- Adherence factors
- Invasion factors

14

List some common symptoms which indicate a patient has an infection:

- Fever
- Chills
- Aches/pains
- Fatigue
- Weight loss
- Headache
- Cough
- Rash
- Inflammation

15

What type of capsid does Influenza A have?

Helical capsid

16

What type of capsid does Adenovirus have?

Icosahedral capsid

17

Give some non-enveloped, dsDNA viruses:

- HPV
- Adenovirus

18

Give some enveloped, dsDNA viruses:

- Herpes
- Hepatitis B
- Molluscum contagiosum

19

Name a dsRNA, non-enveloped virus:

Rotavirus

20

Give some +sense ssRNA non-enveloped viruses:

- Coxsackievirus
- Echovirus
- Enterovirus
- Hepatitis A/E
- Norovirus
- Picornavirus

21

Give some +sense ssRNA enveloped viruses:

- HIV
- Hepatitis C
- Rubella
- Encephalitis viruses

22

Give some -sense ssRNA enveloped viruses:

- Ebola
- Lassa
- Measles
- Mumps
- Influenza
- Respiratory syncytial virus

23

If a cell wall had a large proportion of peptidoglycan, would it stain purple or red using a Gram stain?

Purple = Gram positive

24

Is Neisseria meningitidis:
- Gram positive or negative?
- Cocci or bacilli?

Gram negative
Cocci

25

What is the name given to a single-celled fungus?

Yeast

26

What is the name given to a multi-cellular fungi?

Mould

27

Give some examples of fungi that can infect humans:

- Candida albicans
- Cryptococcus neoformans
- Pneumocystis jiroveci/carinii
- Aspergillus spp
- Dermatophytes

28

What is the name given to a single celled parasite?

Protozoa

29

What is the name given to a multi-cellular parasite?

Helminth

30

Give some examples of protozoa which can infect humans:

- Giardia lamblia
- Cryptosporidium parvum
- Plasmodium falciparum/vivax/ovale/malaria
- Trypanosoma cruzi/brucei

31

Name the parasite which causes American Chagas disease:

Trypanosoma cruzi

32

Name the parasite which causes African Sleeping Sickness:

Trypanosoma bruzei

33

Give some examples of helminths which infect humans:

- Enterobius vermicularis (perianal/vaginal pruritis)
- Taenia saginata/solium (tapeworm)
- Schistosomiasis mansoni

34

Define endemic:

The usual background rate of a disease/infection within a population of geographical region

35

Define outbreak:

2+ cases linked in time and place

36

Define epidemic:

A rate of infection greater than the usual background rate

37

Define pandemic:

A very high rate of infection spreading across many regions/countries/continents

38

What is antigenic drift?

The accumulation of new antigens expressed by a virus, due to mutations over time

39

What is antigenic shift?

When 2 different strains of a virus (or 2 different viruses) combine to form a new subtype, with a mix of their surface antigens expressed

40

Define herd immunity:

When a critical portion of a population is immunised, most members of the population is protected, as little opportunity for an outbreak.