Flashcards in Infection 1 - Basics Deck (40):
Invasion of host's tissues by microorganisms, and subsequent disease caused by microbial multiplication, toxins, and host response
Give some infections which spread via air by droplets:
- Common cold
- Meningococcal disease
Give some infections which spread via air by aerosol:
Give some infections which spread via faecal-oral route:
- Hand, Foot + Mouth
- Hepatitis A
- Viral Meningitis
- C. albicans
Give some infections which spread via skin/mucous membrane contact:
- Head lice
- Herpes simplex
- S. aureus
Give some infections which spread via blood or other body fluid:
- Hepatitis B/C
- Glandular fever
Give some examples of infections which are sexually transferred:
- Genital warts
- Genital herpes
- Hepatitis B
Give some examples of infections which are spread via food/water:
- Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome
Give some examples of infections which are transferred during pregnancy:
- Hepatitis B
Give some examples of infections which are spread via contact with animals:
- Dengue fever
Give some examples of infections which are spread via contact with water/soil:
- Amoebic meningitis
List some disease determinants of infections:
- Pathogen virulence factors
- Inoculum size of pathogens
- Antimicrobial resistance of pathogen
- Site of infection in host
- Co-morbidities of host
List some virulence factors microorganisms may have:
- Toxins (endo/exo)
- Adherence factors
- Invasion factors
List some common symptoms which indicate a patient has an infection:
- Weight loss
What type of capsid does Influenza A have?
What type of capsid does Adenovirus have?
Give some non-enveloped, dsDNA viruses:
Give some enveloped, dsDNA viruses:
- Hepatitis B
- Molluscum contagiosum
Name a dsRNA, non-enveloped virus:
Give some +sense ssRNA non-enveloped viruses:
- Hepatitis A/E
Give some +sense ssRNA enveloped viruses:
- Hepatitis C
- Encephalitis viruses
Give some -sense ssRNA enveloped viruses:
- Respiratory syncytial virus
If a cell wall had a large proportion of peptidoglycan, would it stain purple or red using a Gram stain?
Purple = Gram positive
Is Neisseria meningitidis:
- Gram positive or negative?
- Cocci or bacilli?
What is the name given to a single-celled fungus?
What is the name given to a multi-cellular fungi?
Give some examples of fungi that can infect humans:
- Candida albicans
- Cryptococcus neoformans
- Pneumocystis jiroveci/carinii
- Aspergillus spp
What is the name given to a single celled parasite?
What is the name given to a multi-cellular parasite?
Give some examples of protozoa which can infect humans:
- Giardia lamblia
- Cryptosporidium parvum
- Plasmodium falciparum/vivax/ovale/malaria
- Trypanosoma cruzi/brucei
Name the parasite which causes American Chagas disease:
Name the parasite which causes African Sleeping Sickness:
Give some examples of helminths which infect humans:
- Enterobius vermicularis (perianal/vaginal pruritis)
- Taenia saginata/solium (tapeworm)
- Schistosomiasis mansoni
The usual background rate of a disease/infection within a population of geographical region
2+ cases linked in time and place
A rate of infection greater than the usual background rate
A very high rate of infection spreading across many regions/countries/continents
What is antigenic drift?
The accumulation of new antigens expressed by a virus, due to mutations over time
What is antigenic shift?
When 2 different strains of a virus (or 2 different viruses) combine to form a new subtype, with a mix of their surface antigens expressed