Infection 8 - Infections in Chronic Health Conditions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infection 8 - Infections in Chronic Health Conditions Deck (24):
1

What types of infections are diabetics prone to?

- ENT infections
- Rhinocerebral mucomyosis
- UTIs
- Skin + Soft Tissue infections

2

How does malignant/necrotising otitis externa present?

- severe ear pain
- otorrhoea

3

Which bacteria is usually the causative organism of malignant/necrotising otitis externa?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

4

What type of patients are particularly at risk of developing malignant/necrotising otitis externa?

Elderly diabetic patients

5

What is Rhinocerebral mucormycosis?

Fungal infection of the nose and paranasal sinuses, leading to soft tissue necrosis and bony erosion

6

What type of patients are particularly at risk of developing Rhinocerebral mucormycosis?

Diabetics (particularly if in DKA)

7

Why do diabetics have a higher risk of developing UTI's?

- Neurogenic bladder due to neuropathy = urine stasis

8

Which bacteria are often the causative organisms of UTIs in diabetic patients?

- Enterobacteriaceae (ie E.coli)
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa

9

What types of skin and soft tissue infections are diabetics prone to developing?

- Foot ulcers
- Cellulitis
- Folliculitis
- Necrotising fasciitis

10

What type of bacteria usually cause folliculitis in diabetics?

Staph. aureus

11

What type of bacteria usually cause cellulitis in diabetics?

- Staph. aureus
- Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus

12

What type of bacteria usually cause foot ulcers and necrotising fasciitis in diabetics?

- Staph. aureus
- Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus
- Enterobacteriaceae
- Other anaerobes

13

Why do diabetics rarely respond well to surgery?

Vascular disease impairs healing

14

Cystic fibrosis follows which inheritance pattern?

Autosomal recessive

15

Whats the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis?

Deletion of Phenylalanine at position 508

16

Which molecule regulates the CFTR Cl- channel?

cAMP

17

Name 4 part of the body that is affected by cystic fibrosis:

1) Respiratory system - repeated inflammation + infection
2) Pancreas - blocks ducts, less enzymes released
3) Urogenital system - absence of vas deferens in men
4) GI tract - rectal prolapse, constipation, malabsorption

18

What bacteria most commonly cause lung infections in young children with cystic fibrosis?

- H. influenzae
- Staph. aureus

19

Which types of bacteria commonly cause lung infections in older children/early adults with cystic fibrosis?

- Ps. aeruginosa
- Bulkholderia cepacia

20

Why do cystic fibrosis sufferers have a higher mortality rate from a Ps aeruginosa infection?

- Defective ingestion of bacteria by epithelial cells
- Abnormal composition of mucous = impaired function of antimicrobial peptides
- Abnormal innate immune system
- Tend to be colonised by Mucoid Ps = worsened effects

21

What microorganisms typically cause infections in adults with cystic fibrosis?

- Atypical mycobacteria (not TB)
- C. albicans
- Asp. fumigatus

22

How can cystic fibrosis patients encourage mucous clearance to reduce infection risk?

- Chest physiotherapy
- Hypertonic saline nebuliser
- Mucolytics
- Bronchodilators
- Steroids

23

What type of bacteria commonly cause acute COPD exacerbations?

- H. influenzae
- M. catarrhalis
- S. pneumoniae
- Ps. aeruginosa
- E.coli

24

What type of viruses commonly cause acute COPD exacerbations?

- Respiratory syncytial virus
- Rhinovirus
- Influenza A
- Parainfluenza
- Coronavirus
- Adenovirus
- Human metapneumovirus