Infection 2 - Antimicrobials Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infection 2 - Antimicrobials Deck (47):
1

Which antibiotics inhibit cell wall synthesis?

- Beta-lactams
- Glycopeptides

2

Which antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis?

- Tetracyclines
- Macrolides
- Aminoglycosides

3

Which antibiotics inhibit nucleic acid synthesis?

Quinolones

4

What is the mechanism of action of Beta-lactams?

Inhibit cell wall synthesis:
- Express beta-lactamase genes
- Prevents peptidoglycan crosslinking

5

What are the 4 main classes of Beta-lactams?

1) Penicillins
2) Cephalosporins
3) Carbapenems
4) Monobactams

6

What type of antibiotic would you use to treat Streptococcus?

- Penicillin
- Meropenem
- Tetracycline

7

Which antibiotics make up the triple therapy given for Helicobacter pylori (with proton pump inhibitors)?

1) Amoxicillin
2) Clarithromycin

8

Which types of penicillin are active against most gram positives and negatives, and anaerobes?

- Co-Amoxiclav
- Tazocin

9

Which cephalosporin is used against Neisseria meningitidis and gonorrheoa?

Ceftriaxone

10

What type of antibiotic are cephalosporins?

Beta-lactam

11

What type of antibiotic are penicillins?

Beta-lactam

12

What type of antibiotic are carbapenems?

Beta-lactam

13

What type of antibiotic are monobactams?

Beta-lactam

14

Name a carbapenem:

- Meropenem
- Imipenem

15

Name a monobactam:

Aztreonam

16

What is the mechanism of action of glycopeptides:

Inhibit cell wall synthesis:
- prevents peptidoglycan incorporation

17

What makes vancomycin a better antibiotic than penicillin?

Vancomycin has a lipid target, whereas Penicillin has a protein target.
Proteins are more variable and more likely to mutate, making antibiotic resistance against penicillin more likely.

18

What types of bacteria are glycopeptides (ie vancomycin) active against?

Most gram positive bacteria

19

What antibiotic would you use to treat a severe Clostridium difficile infection?

Vancomycin

20

Name 2 glycopeptides:

- Vancomycin
- Teicoplanin

21

What is the mechanism of action of tetracyclines?

Inhibit protein synthesis:
- Inhibit translation by preventing amino acyl tRNA's from associating with the ribosomes

22

Which antibiotics would you use against MRSA?

- Vancomycin
- Clarithromycin

23

What type of antibiotic is often used against Chlamydia/Acne/Rosacea etc?

Tetracycline

24

What is the mechanism of action of aminoglycosides?

Inhibit protein synthesis:
- Bind to 30s ribosome

25

What type of bacteria are aminoglycosides active against?

Mostly gram negative

26

Name 2 types of aminoglycosides:

- Nitrofurantoin
- Gentamycin

27

What type of antibiotics would you use against UTIs?

- Nitrofurantoin
- Trimethoprim

28

What are the drawbacks of using gentamycin?

- Narrow therapeutic window
- Nephrotoxic
- Ototoxic

29

Which antibiotic is only used for severe gram negative sepsis?

Gentamycin

30

What is the mechanism of action of macrolides?

Inhibit protein synthesis

31

Name 3 macrolides:

1) Erythromycin
2) Clarithromycin
3) Azithromycin

32

What type of antibiotic would you use against Legionella pneumophila?

Erythromycin

33

What type of antibiotic is often used for skin or upper respiratory tract infections?

Macrolides: Erythromycin/Clarithromycin/Azithromycin

34

What is the mechanism of action of quinolones:

Inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
- Inhibit DNA gyrase

35

Name a quinolone:

Ciprofloxacin

36

What type of bacteria is ciprofloxacin active against?

Gram negative bacteria

37

What type of antibiotic prevents folic acid synthesis?

Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors
- Trimethoprim
- Co-Trimoxazole

38

What are the 2 main classes of antifungals?

1) Azoles
2) Polyenes

39

Name 2 types of Azoles:

- Fluconazole
- Itraconazole
- Voricanazole
- Posaconazole

40

What type of antibiotic would you use against Candida albicans?

- Nystatin (topical)
- Fluconazole (oral)

41

Name 2 types of polyenes:

1) Nystatin
2) Amphotericin

42

What antibiotic would you use against Chlamydia?

- Azithomycin
- Tetracycline

43

Name the antiviral active against Influenza A + B:

Oseltamivir 'Tamiflu'

44

What is Aciclovir used for?

- Herpes simplex virus (genital herpes, encephalitis)
- Herpes varicella zoster virus (Chickenpox, shingles)

45

Name an antiprotozoal, which is also active against anaerobic bacteria:

Metronidazole

46

What is Metronidazole used for?

- Clostridium difficile
- Bacterial vaginosis
- Ameobiasis
- Giardiasis
- Trichomoniasis

47

Which antibiotic is used against herpes infections? (simplex and varicella zoster)

Aciclovir