Flashcards in Infection 7 - Blood-borne Viruses Deck (23):
Why is HIV ignored by our immune system?
It's outer membrane is a human bilayer due to viral budding after replication within a human cell. Our immune systems recognise this bilayer as self.
Which cells does HIV infect and replicate within?
CD4+ T cells
What is the normal range for serum CD4+ count?
500 - 1500 / mm^3 blood
At what point does HIV cause AIDS?
When CD4+ count drops below 200 / mm^3 blood
What is the leading cause of death of HIV patients?
What are common symptoms of mild HIV infection?
- Rash / recurrent skin infection
- Sore throat
- Mouth ulcers
- Kaposi sarcoma
List some ways HIV may be transmitted between people:
- Sexual (vaginal/anal/oral)
- Sharing needles
- Needlestick injury
- Medical procedures (blood transfusion, organ donation)
What is the treatment for HIV?
2 x NRTI (nucleoside RT inhibitor)
- Protease inhibitor
- Integrase inhibitor
- CCRS inhibitor
How many types of hepatitis are there?
A, B, C, D, E
Which types of Hepatitis can be transferred by faecal-oral route only?
A + E
Which types of Hepatitis can be transferred by blood or sex?
B, C, D
Which types of Hepatitis can be transferred vertically?
B + D
What are the symptoms of acute hepatitis B?
- Abdominal pain
Acute Hepatitis B infection usually clears in what time frame?
Within 6 months
What percentage of people with an acute Hepatitis B infection will become chronically ill with hepatitis?
6 - 10%
What are the complications associated with chronic hepatitis B infection?
- Hepatocellular carcinoma
What is the treatment for chronic Hepatitis B?
Vaccinations are available against which Hepatitis viruses?
A + B
The presence of which antigen in the blood causes Hepatitis B to be infective?
What percentage of people with acute Hepatitis C infection will become chronically ill with hepatitis?
What are the symptoms of chronic Hepatitis C?
Due to chronic liver disease/cirrhosis:
- Weight loss
- Blood clotting problems
- RUQ pain
What is the treatment for chronic Hepatitis C?
Antiviral dual therapy 8-12 weeks