Infection 7 - Blood-borne Viruses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infection 7 - Blood-borne Viruses Deck (23):
1

Why is HIV ignored by our immune system?

It's outer membrane is a human bilayer due to viral budding after replication within a human cell. Our immune systems recognise this bilayer as self.

2

Which cells does HIV infect and replicate within?

CD4+ T cells

3

What is the normal range for serum CD4+ count?

500 - 1500 / mm^3 blood

4

At what point does HIV cause AIDS?

When CD4+ count drops below 200 / mm^3 blood

5

What is the leading cause of death of HIV patients?

Tuberculosis

6

What are common symptoms of mild HIV infection?

- Fever
- Chills
- Rash / recurrent skin infection
- Aches
- Sore throat
- Fatigue
- Mouth ulcers
- Lymphadenopathy
- Kaposi sarcoma

7

List some ways HIV may be transmitted between people:

- Sexual (vaginal/anal/oral)
- Sharing needles
- Childbirth
- Breast-feeding
- Needlestick injury
- Medical procedures (blood transfusion, organ donation)

8

What is the treatment for HIV?

2 x NRTI (nucleoside RT inhibitor)
1 of:
- NNRTI
- Protease inhibitor
- Integrase inhibitor
- CCRS inhibitor

9

How many types of hepatitis are there?

5:
A, B, C, D, E

10

Which types of Hepatitis can be transferred by faecal-oral route only?

A + E

11

Which types of Hepatitis can be transferred by blood or sex?

B, C, D

12

Which types of Hepatitis can be transferred vertically?

B + D

13

What are the symptoms of acute hepatitis B?

- Jaundice
- Fatigue
- Abdominal pain
- Anorexia
- Nausea
- Vomiting
- Arthralgia
MOST ASYMPTOMATIC

14

Acute Hepatitis B infection usually clears in what time frame?

Within 6 months

15

What percentage of people with an acute Hepatitis B infection will become chronically ill with hepatitis?

6 - 10%

16

What are the complications associated with chronic hepatitis B infection?

- Cirrhosis
- Hepatocellular carcinoma

17

What is the treatment for chronic Hepatitis B?

Lifelong anti-virals

18

Vaccinations are available against which Hepatitis viruses?

A + B

19

The presence of which antigen in the blood causes Hepatitis B to be infective?

E-antigen (HBeAg)

20

What percentage of people with acute Hepatitis C infection will become chronically ill with hepatitis?

~ 80%

21

What are the symptoms of chronic Hepatitis C?

Due to chronic liver disease/cirrhosis:
- Fatigue
- Weight loss
- Blood clotting problems
- Ascites
- RUQ pain
- Jaundice

22

What is the treatment for chronic Hepatitis C?

Antiviral dual therapy 8-12 weeks

23

What is the cure rate of individuals treated for chronic Hepatitis C?

> 90%