Gynecologic Pathology III Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gynecologic Pathology III Deck (51):
1

T/F cystadenomas are benign

T

2

Ovarian tumor sources

surface epithelial, germ cell, sex-cord stromal, metastatic

3

What is the source of borderline tumors?

surface epithelia

4

Most common source of benign, malignant, and borderline ovarian tumors?

surface epithelia

5

Epithelial tumors arise form the surface epithelium of the ovary and from _____

epithelial inclusion cysts

6

Inclusion cyst formation

after ovulation, invagination of surface epithelium can form a cyst

7

Classification of surface epithelial tumors

serous, mucinous | malignant, borderline, benign

8

______ are lined by a single layer of bland epithelial cells.

benign cystadenomas

9

Ovarian masses that are ______ are most suspicious for malignancy

solid and cystic

10

Completely cystic masses are mostly benign/malignant

benign

11

T/F Completely solid masses may be benign or malignant

T

12

Typical spread of ovarian cancer

peritoneal surfaces, omentum

13

T/F most early stage ovarian cancers come without signs and symptoms

T

14

Stage I ovarian cancer

a = one ovary, b = both ovaries, c = surface/rupture of ovary

15

Stage 2 ovarian cancer

spread to tubes, uterus, other pelvic organs

16

Stage 3 ovarian cancer

lymph node metastasis, spread out of pelvis or to omentum

17

Stage 4 ovarian cancer

distant metastasis

18

Most common malignant ovarian tumor

ovarian serous carcinoma

19

Risk factors for ovarian serous carcinoma

nulliparity, family hx, heritable mutations

20

Which heritable mutations are risk factors for ovarian serous carcinoma

BRCA1 or BRCA2

21

Which mutations tend to lead to low grade ovarian serous carcinoma (e.g. serous borderline tumors) ?

KRAS or BRAF

22

Which mutations tend to lead to high grade ovarian serous carcinoma?

p53

23

Almost all ovarian carcinomas in women with ______ mutations are high grade serous carcinoma and a significant percentage of these arise from _______

BRCA 1/2 and fallopian tube epithelium

24

T/F Most serous tumors are malignant vs borderline or benign

T

25

Borderline tumors have high/low malignant potential.

low

26

Is there invasion in borderline tumors?

No stromal invasion!

27

Implants

not considered metastases --> extraovarian lesions with borderline tumors

28

borderline tumors with invasive implants act like ____

low grade carcinomas

29

Stage I borderline ovarian tumors

confined to ovary; if noninvasive implants --> 100% survival

30

Metastatic tumors of ovary are hard to distinguish from ___

primary mucionous ovarian tumors

31

Primary ovarian mucinous tumors are almost always uni/bilateral and large/small

unilateral and large

32

Metatstatic tumors of the ovary tend to be uni/bilateral and small/large

bilateral and small

33

Krukenberg tumor

special form of bilateral metastasis to ovary that is solid

34

Classical Krukenberg histology

signet ring tumor cells --> breast and stomach cancer

35

Germ cell ovarian tumors are ____ >95% of the time

benign dermoid cyst/cystic teratoma

36

For 0-30 year old age group, ___ are hte most common malignant tumors.

dysgerminoma (germ cell tumor)

37

dermoid cyst

benign, common form of germ cell tumor in ovary

38

malignant transformation of a dermoid cyst is rare/common

rare

39

Dysgerminoma

uncommon but most common malignant germ cell tumor --> can be bilateral; excellent prognosis

40

Sex cord stromal tumors arise from ____

granulosa and thecal cells

41

Most benign granulosa-stromal cell tumors are

thecoma-fibroma

42

Most of clinically malignant sex-cord stromal tumors are ___

granulosa cell tumors --> all have malignant potential

43

Granulosa cell tumors can produce estrogens and cause _____

endometrial hyperplasia/carcinoma

44

granulosa cells in tumors form follicles called ___

call-exner bodies

45

coffee bean nuclei with grooves

granulosa cell tumor

46

____ tumors have a lot of lipid

thecoma

47

____ tumors have no hormone production and are associated with two rare syndromes

ovarian fibroma

48

two syndromes associated with ovarian fibroma

meigs, gorlins

49

meigs' syndrome

ascities and pleural effusion

50

gorlins' syndrome

nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome --> multiple fibromas

51

bundles of spindle cells are what kind of tumor?

ovarian fibroma