Prostate Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prostate Pathology Deck (38):
1

4 components of glandular compartment of prostate

peripheral, central, transitional, periurethral

2

non glandular compartments of prostate

anterior fibromuscular stroma, preprostatic sphincter

3

the ____ is anteriorly concave

urethra

4

The ejaculatory duct passes through the ____ zone.

central

5

The prostatic urethra passes through the ____ zone

transitional zone

6

70-80% of prostate cancers arise from the ____ zone

peripheral

7

T/F Some prostatic cancers arise in the central zone.

F --> cancers do not arise in central zone...only secondarily involved

8

Benign prostatic hyperplasia localizes to the ___ zone which is also where ____ % of cancers arise

transition and 10-20%

9

2 layers of prostatic duct lobules

secretory cells (cuboidal/columnar) and basal cells

10

nodular prostate enlargement due to cellular proliferations of prostatic glands and stroma associated with lower urinary tract symptoms LUTS

BPH

11

LUTS

BPH

12

Pathophysiology of BPH

cellular accumulation of testosterone (especially DHT) and some estrogen; risk factors = age and family history

13

Most common cause of non-cancerous rise in PSA

BPH

14

Tx of BPH

alpha andrenergic blocker or 5 alpha reductase inhibitor // surgical is best

15

Hallmark of BPH

suburethral nodular prostatic enlargement --> centered on proximal urethra and involve transitional and submucosal compartment

16

Which group has highest incidence of prostate carcinoma

african americans in us

17

T/F there is a strong association between PCA and diets rich in red meat.

T

18

Gold standard for prostate cancer identification

needle biopsy

19

Why is most us PCA asymptomatic?

early id due to screening by PSA

20

Gold standard for clinical staging of PCA?

digital rectal exam (DRE)

21

Symptoms of PCA

obstructive bladder symptoms, pelvic pain, bone pain due to mets

22

___ produces PSA

prostate epithelium produces prostate specific antigen

23

Cutoff for psa biopsy

4 ng/mL

24

role of PSA

liquifies semen

25

high/low PSA is associated with more cancer

high

26

T/F there is no psa cut off at which a man can be guaranteed to be free of prostate cancer

T

27

T/F prostate cancer does not have a reliably gross mass.

T --> unless quite large(dense appearance, lack necrosis/hemorrhage, no sharp borders)

28

Architectural features of prostate carcinoma glands

small, crowded, rigid lumen, lack basal cells --> determines gleason grading

29

Nuclear/cytoplasmic features of prostate cancer

enlarged nuclei, uniform, nonpleomorophic, high mitotic rate

30

Intraluminal features of prostate cancer

blue mucin, eosinophlic amorphous secretions, crystalloids, intraluminal necrosis

31

Corpora amylacea vs intraluminal necrosis

intraluminal features: benign vs malignant

32

4 pathognomic features of prostate cancer

circumferential perineural invasion, collagenous micronodules, glomerulations, growth in adipose tissue

33

Gleason scale

1-5 --> the pattern by which glands grow (higher is worse) -->most abundant grade + highest grade + some other factors = score

34

T1 a/b/c stage prostate cancer

incidentally found

35

T2 stage prostate cancer

a = tumor of <1/2 lobe, b = tumor between 1/2 and 1 lobe, c= tumor of 2 lobes

36

T3 stage prostate cancer

invasions into fat (a) or seminal vesicles (b)

37

T4 stage prostate cancer

invasion elsewhere

38

Most frequent alteration in prostate cancer oncogenome was loss of _______

chromosome 8p