Ovarian Aging and Menopause Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ovarian Aging and Menopause Deck (25):
1

First appearance of primordial germ cells in yolk sac occurs during which week?

week 4

2

By week ____, germ cells arrive at the genital ridge.

week 6

3

T/F the rate of follicular atresia is not fixed and becomes more rapid approximately 10-15 years prior to menopause.

T

4

clinical correlates of more rapid loss of follicles

reduced odds of pregnancy, fewer follicles grow per cycle, menstrual cycle irregularity

5

Menopause

the point in time when permanent cessation of menstruation occurs following loss of ovarian activity --> retrospective diagnosis/natural or surgical

6

Perimenopause/menopausal transition

menstrual irregularity duration of approx 4 years

7

Biochemical characteristics of menopause

elevated fsh/lh, low estrogen

8

Factors related to age of onset of menopause

smoking, family, possible dietary habits, alcohol consumption,

9

Total and LDL cholesterol levels are higher/lower in premenopausal women than in men

lower --> levels rise with age and after menopause

10

____ syndrome increases during perimenopause and postmenopause

metabolic syndrome

11

T/F menopause onset is related to accelerated bone loss and osteoporosis

T

12

Women typically experience ___ years of hot flashes if not treated after onset of menopause.

5 years

13

Tx of symptoms of menopause

hormone replacement, ssri, antihypertensive, behavioral

14

premature ovarian insufficiency

cessation of ovarian function < age 40 --> elevated lh/fsh on two occasions one month apart with low estradiol

15

prevalence of premature ovarian insufficiency

1%

16

why do you need low estradiol to determine premature ovarian insuffiency?

because if both fsh/estradiol are high, person might be about to ovulate vs having lost regulation of gonadotropins due to poi

17

An abnormality in or absence of one x chromosome resulting in ovarian failure is called ____

turner's syndrome --> 45x or mosaic with 46xx/45x

18

Clinical features of turner's

premature ovarian failure, delayed puberty, renal anomolies, cardiovascular and associated autoimmune disorders

19

MOA turner's syndrome on premature ovarian failure

excessive rapid atresia of oocytes occurs starting in utero and streak gonads depleted of follicles develop

20

T/F both x chromosomes are active in ovary to ensure normal development (exception to lyonization)

T

21

gonads depleted of oocytes and gonads are colloquially known as ____

streak gonads

22

Older/younger exposure to chemotherapy/radiation has the greatest impact on early menopause

older --> fewer follicles on reserve

23

Why are alkylating agents especially damaging?

not specific to any particular stage of cycle

24

Risks of hormone replacement tx

dvt

25

Benefits of hormone replacement tx

quality of life, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease prevention