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Flashcards in Herbals Deck (32):
1

What is the problem with using herbals? (3)

1.Amount of active ingredient? (Each capsule can have differing amounts of the active ingredient)
2. Safety and efficacy (Can’t assume that they are safe, the FDA has to prove that they are unsafe, after the drug comes onto the market. and then file lawsuit) Herbals don’t have to prove that the actually work.
3. Serious Interactions: Always ask and assess patients use of herbals. 70% of patients don’t report their use of herbals.

2

pain caused by too little blood flow, usually during exercise

Claudication

3

What is different about the process conventional drugs must go through to get approved compared to herbals?

1.Must be approved by the FDA through a rigorous process (multi-step process).

2.Drugs are presumed dangerous and go under rigorous testing before manufacturers are able to release to the public.

4

What is different about the process herbals must go through to get approved compared to conventional drugs?

1.Are allowed on the market with prior testing for safety or efficacy
2.FDA must seek to prove a supplement is not safe to have it removed (presumed safe until proven hazardous)
3.Supplement are often “outed” by investigational journalists

5

Why is it essential to assess for clients for the use of herbals & supplements?

Principal concerns: increased ________ and decreased therapeutic affects.


These interactions can __________ or inhibit pharmaceutical drug effects

Many supplements effect the ___ system and PGP

Herbal supplement can interact with standard drug regimens.

Toxicity

potentiate

CYP

6

What are The 4 G’s?

garlic,
ginger root,
ginkgo biloba,
and glucosamine

7

Explain why garlic, ginger root, ginkgo biloba, and glucosamine must not be combined with antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications.

Garlic, ginger root, ginkgo biloba, and glucosamine all pose risks of bleeding.

8

What does St Johns Wort block?

Blocks re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin

9

What does St Johns Wort induce?

CYP3A4

10

What is SAMe's mechanism?

Helps synthesize neurotransmitters and hormones

11

Pineal gland slows in ability with age at __ years old

40

12

Where is melatonin produced?

pineal gland

13

What herbal is useful as a sleep aid?

Melatonin

14

Ginko biloba induces ___________

vasodilation

15

Why is kava not a safe alternative to benzodiazepines?

1.Can cause severe liver injury (public warning in 2002 by FDA)
2.Hepatotoxicity
3.Sales are restricted in many countries (but not yet in the US).

16

St. Johns wort: MOA?

Blocks reuptake of NE and 5-HT

17

St. Johns wort: induces ___

CYP3A4

18

St. John's wort: increases ____

P-glycoprotein

19

St. John's wort: side effect?

Photosensitivity

20

St. John's wort: Effective for depression?

Support for mild-moderate depression

Not for severe depression

21

SAMe: What does it do?

Helps synthesize NT and hormones

22

SAMe: Evidence for depression?

Yes, evidence for mild depression. The effectiveness of SAMe is similar to SSRIs--SAMe is very expensive. If you have mild depression, might as well go get prescribed a SSRI instead of go buy the expensive SAMe

23

Melatonin: Produced where?

Pineal gland

24

Melatonin: When is it synthesized?

During darkness

25

Melatonin: Bad or good research support with the effectiveness?

Good

26

What other disorders is melatonin be tried in?

Alzheimers and bipolar

27

Ginkgo biloba: induces ____

Vasodilation

28

Ginkgo biloba: weak evidence for _____

memory enhancement

29

Ginkgo bilbo is an ______.

Anticoagulant

30

What is ginkgo bilbo good for?

Claudication (muscle pain due to restricted blood flow)

31

Omega 3 FA: What do they contain?

EPA (heart)
DHA (brain)

32

What do omega 3 FA improve?

Nerve conduction