T3-Allergic Rhinitis, Colds, and Coughs-MJ Flashcards Preview

Pharm I > T3-Allergic Rhinitis, Colds, and Coughs-MJ > Flashcards

Flashcards in T3-Allergic Rhinitis, Colds, and Coughs-MJ Deck (24):
1

What are the three main topics of this lesson?

Intranasal glucocorticoids
Sympathomimetics (decongestants)
Cough medicines

2

The intranasal glucocorticoids have inhibitory effects on what 6 things?

Histamine
Cytokines
Prostaglandins
Tryptases
Chemokines
Leukotrienes

3

What are two common examples of intranasal glucocorticoids?

Mometasone
Fluticasone

4

What are two adverse effects of intranasal glucocorticoids?

Epistaxis
Increased risk of URI

5

Adverse effect of intranasal glucocorticoids: Epistaxis

What is this and why does it happen?

Epistaxis is a nose bleed. It happens because the intranasal glucocorticoid nose spray dries up the nasal mucosa and can cause nose bleeds

6

Adverse effect of intranasal glucocorticoids: Increased risk of URI

Why is there an increased risk of an upper respiratory infection when taking a intranasal glucocorticoid?

A glucocorticoid is a steroid
Steroids weaken the immune response, so that leads to an increase risk for infection

7

How do you administer intranasal glucocorticoids? (5 steps)

1. Clear out nostrils (blow nose)
2. Tilt head FORWARD, close on nostril
3. Spray into nostril while breathing in SLOWLY
4. Repeat in other nostril
5. Clean applicator (can clean off with tissue)

8

Are intranasal glucocorticoids PRN?

No, these should be taken daily

9

What do the sympathomimetics work on?

The sympathetic nervous system (flight or flight). The work on alpha1, beta1, and beta2 receptors but PRIMARILY effects are on the alpha1

10

What is the MOA of sympathomimetics?

Working on the alpha1 adrenergic receptors (arteries that are vasodilated-which is why it is a stuffy nose)

11

Sympathomimetics: What happens when the alpha1 adrenergic receptors are stimulated?

Vasoconstriction--makes it easier to breathe!

12

Sympathomimetics: Is there any beta stimulation with these drugs?

Yes

13

What are two common examples of sympathomimetics?

Pseudoephedrine
Phenylephrine

14

Sympathomimetics: What are the adverse effects?

CNS excitation (oral sympathos)--[restlessness, irritability, anxiety, insomnia]

Cardiovascular effects- Alpha1 receptors are activated on systemic blood vessels, and that can cause WIDESPREAD vasoconstriction
*Hazardous for people with heart problems

15

Sympathomimetics: Rebound congestion strategies. What are they?

1. Abrupt withdrawal
2. Discontinue one nostril at a time
3. Starting intranasal glucocorticoid (best option)

16

Cough medicines: What are the 3 common antitussives?

Codeine
Hydrocodone
Dextromethorphan

17

Cough medicines: Codeine
What kind of drug is this?

Prodrug

18

Cough medicines: What is hydrocodone?

A pain med that is also a really good cough suppressant

19

Cough meds: How is dextromethorphan a drug of abuse?

Robotripping

20

Dextromethorphan: What are the robotripping effects?

Hallucinations
Slurred speech
Lethargy
Euphoria
Resp. Depression

21

Cough meds: Is dextromethorphan a clean or dirty drug?

Dirty--activates a lot of receptors--one of which is serotonin

22

Cough meds: Dextromethorphan acts on a lot of receptors, one of which is serotonin. What does that mean?

There is risk for serotonin syndrome

23

What is guaifenesin?

An expectorant

24

Guaifenesin: What is an expectorant?

Helps make thins secretions so you can cough them up