Flashcards in Chapters 6-11 Deck (44)
Increase activity of drug
1 +1 =2
Decrease the effect of the drug
1 + 1 =0
Changes the drug activity/effectiveness completely
1 + 1 =orange
What all can drug interactions mess up?
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and/or excretion
What happens when you mix the drug tetracyclines with calcium?
Tetracycline when taken with calcium will render the tetracycline inactive
Teeth and bones become grey
What happens when you mix the drug digoxin with fiber?
The fiber and digoxin bind causing the digoxin not to work. This can kill a patient
What happens when you mix the drugs with aluminum in them with citrus?
The body will start to absorb the aluminum when it normally would not
Why do you do S.A.S.H?
Because you are adding an IV to the main IV line and you need to make sure the drug won't mix and have adverse effects with the other drug. More precautionary than anything. You do this just in case the previous nurse didn't do the saline flushes
Cytochrome P450 (CYP)
Messes stuff up to drugs (Knappiers words)
Drug metabolized by CYP
Speeds up a drug
Slows down a drug
Anti-depresent Paroxetine is an inhibitor. What would happen if a patient was taking both paroxetine and metoprolol (metoprolol is a substrate-aka a drug metabolized by CYP)
So the anti-depressent would inhibit CYP to metabolize the drug metoprolol (a beta blocker--beta blockers reduce HR). Therefore, the metoprolol is not "sawed up" (metabolized) so your HR would not be lowered as effectively
What is the 4th leading cause of death in America?
Adverse drug reactions
Adverse drug reaction
An undesired effect that occurs at a normal dose
An ADR that is very mild, expected, predictable, and tolerable
Do we ever give some medications for the side effects they produce?
Severe ADR that occur with an overdose (technical term)
Severe ADR regardless of the dose (what most people mean)
-Some fairly minor others can be deadly
-The result of an immune response
Many drugs have the potential to be toxic to the ____ and ___.
Liver and heart
What are the two main reasons a drug causes damage to the liver
Normal dosing (idiosyncratic)
A normal dose be fine to one patient but causes damage in another
What are the 8 signs of liver damage?
U-Upper abdominal pain
I-Increased need for sleep
C-Clay colored stool
E-Encephalopathy (brain disease) & ecchymosis (bruising)
If a patients QT interval is abnormally long/prolonged, they may be at risk for developing dangerous heart rhythms, specifically _______.
Torsades de pointes--> leads to ventricular fibrillation
If a drug lists prolonged QT interval as a risk, who are some people that are at an even higher risk for this developing?
-Patients who are on multiple QT drugs
-Elderly patients who have bradycardia
-Patients with decreased K and decreased Mg
-Patients with heart failure
Why are women who take a drug that has a risk of prolonged QT more at risk than men?
Women tend to have slower QT intervals..so taking a drug with a prolonged QT makes their intervals even slower
What are the three main problems that can occur with genetic variations?
Metabolism (most common)
The future of medicine using genetic testing for drugs