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Flashcards in CNS Deck (39):
1

What is the "bark" of the brain?

Cerebral cortex

2

We want a lot of cerebral cortex, but our skull space doesn't have enough room. What features of the brain allows for increase in surface area to allow more cortex?

Gyri and sulci

3

Gyri are _____. Sulci are _____.

Mountains; valleys

4

What are the 4 major landmarks of the brain?

Cerebral cortex
Lateral sulcus
Central sulcus
Cerebellum

5

What structure of the brain is involved in balance and coordination?

Cerebellum

6

For each lobe of the brain, is there different types of cortex?

Yes

7

What are the 4 lobes of the brain?

Frontal
Temporal
Parietal
Occipital

8

What is the function of the frontal lobe?

Executive functioning
Planning and initiating motor movement

9

What is the function of the temporal lobe?

Language comprehension and production; memory and learning; vision

10

What is the function of the parietal lobe?

Interpreting sensory input from the body; vision and somatosensory integration areas; written language

11

What is the function of the occipital lobe?

Visual function

12

Where is the primary motor cortex located?

Anterior to the central sulcus; frontal lobe

13

What is the collective term for a large number of interconnected nuclei and area of the brain involved in learning, memory, emotion, and executive function?

Limbic system

14

What are the 6 limbic nuclei?

-Hippocampus and entorhinal cortex
-Amygdala
-Endogenous reward system
-Cingulate gyrus
-Hypothalamus
-Orbitofrontal cortex & dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

15

LIMBIC NUCLEI: Which of the 6 is involved with learning and memory?

Hippocampus and entorhinal cortex

16

LIMBIC NUCLEI: What is one of the first parts of the brain that is harmed when you have alzehimers?

Entorhinal cortex

17

LIMBIC NUCLEI: What is the function of amygdala?

Emotion, specifically fear

18

LIMBIC NUCLEI: What are the characteristics of the endogenous reward system?

Happiness, pleasure, dopamine

19

LIMBIC NUCLEI: What is the hypothalamus involved in?

Feeding
Fight
Flight
Fuck (reproduction)

20

LIMBIC NUCLEI: What is the role of the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex?

Social and executive function

21

LIMBIC NUCLEI: With demential patients, sometimes they have a "dead" dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. What does that mean?

That would be the underlying cause to why dementia patients with a dead dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are so mean and crude.

22

LIMBIC NUCLEI: What nuclei plays a large role in mental disorders, specifically ADD and OCD?

Cingulate gyrus

23

What are the 5 parts of an axon?

Axon, dendrites, cell body, myelin, and synaptic terminal

24

Do infants have fully developed myelin sheaths?

No

25

Do any of our neurons touch each other?

No

26

What are the 3 ways neurotransmitters are cleared from the synapse?

Reuptake
Enzymatic degradation
Diffusion

27

What is reuptake?

Reabsorption of the neurotransmitter into the neuron

28

What is enzymatic degradation?

Destruction of the neurotransmitter with special chemicals called enzymes

29

What is diffusion?

The neurotransmitter becoming detached from the receptor and drifting out of the synaptic cleft

30

What are the 3 groups for the major CNS neurotransmitters?

Cholinergics
Amino acids
Monamines

31

What neurotransmitter is part of the cholinergic?

Acetylcholine-Associated with alzehimers

32

What are the 2 neurotransmitters part of the amino acids?

Glutamate
Gaba

33

AMINO ACIDS: What does glutamate do?

Biosynthesis of proteins

34

AMINO ACIDS: What does GABA do?

Relaxes, slows processes in the brain; associated with anxiety; muscle tone

35

What are the 3 neurotransmitters of the monoamines?

Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Serotonin

36

MONOAMINES: What does dopamine regulate?

Pleasure
Attention
Concentration
Energy
Motivation
Mood
Muscle movement

37

MONOAMINES: What does norepinephrine regulate?

Mood
Alertness
Concentration
Energy

38

MONOAMINES: What does serotonin regulate?

Mood
Anxiety
Sex
Appetitie

39

What does this statement mean: "From a therapeutic perspective, the BBB is a mixed blessing"

The BBB protects the brain from injury by potential toxic substances, but it can also be a significant obstacle to entry of therapeutic agents