Chapters 1-5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 1-5 Deck (46):
1

Pharmacology

Study of drugs and their interactions with living systems

2

Clinical pharmacology

The study of drugs in humans

3

Pharmacotherapeutics

The use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy

4

Pharmacon

Greek word meaning remedy or poison

5

What are the three top drug concerns?

Efficacy
Safety
Selectivity

6

What are the 7 other concerns about drugs?

Reversibility, Predictability, Convenience, Interactions, Cost, Shelf-life, and Confusing Names

7

What are the 6 rights?

Patient, drug, dose, route, time, documentation

8

Which testing is done in animals?

Preclinical testing

9

What are the 4 parts to clinical testing?

I. Healthy Volunteers
II. Patients (Small)
III. Patients (Large)
IV. Post marketing surveillance

10

What are the 4 aspects to randomized controlled trials (RCT)?

Controls
Blinding (double)
Randomization
Repetition

11

What are three problems with RCTs?

Small size
Short time periods
Unrealistic samples

12

Be aware of greed: Ghost writers

Many articles published in medical journals are written by drug companies, then the company pays a doctor or a professor to put their name on the article

13

Be aware of greed: Patent extenders

The drug is altered in an insignificant way, but sold at higher costs

14

Be aware of greed: Trade names

Used to boost products, but causes safety problems and confusion

15

Pharmacokinetics

Movement of drugs

16

What are the three ways drugs cross through the membranes?

Channels or pores
Transport systems
Direct penetration

17

Ions (define)
Can they go through a membrane via direct penetration?

Atom that has an electrical charge (either - or +)
No

18

Acids ____ protons

Give up

19

Bases ____ protons

Take

20

Absorption

The movement of the drug into the bloodstream

21

What are the 5 absorption factors?

Lipid solubility
Rate of dissolution
Surface area (sidenote: intestines have a massive surface area)
Blood flow
pH partitioning (ion trapping)

22

What are the two major drug administration routes?

Enteral (PO, NG tube, G tube, Rectal)
Parenteral (IV, IM, Sub Cut, ID)

23

Distribution

The movement of the drug from the bloodstream into tissues

24

What are the three distribution factors?

Exiting capillary bed
Tissue perfusion
Entering the cell

25

If a drug is lipid soluble and attached to a protein, will it still be able to get out of the tissue?

No

26

What is Pgp and what does it do?

P Glycoprotein
Blocks some lipid soluble drugs

27

What are 5 locations of Pgp?

Brain
Intestines
Liver
Placenta
Kidneys

28

Metabolism

The alteration of a drug's structure via enzymes

29

Where is the main location for metabolism?

Liver

30

What is the family of enzymes whose job is to break down drugs?

Cytochrome P450 Family (CYP)

31

What are the three metabolism outcomes?

Renal excretion
Change in activity
Change in toxicity

32

Prodrug

When you swallow a drug but it doesn't have any affect until it reaches its site of metabolism and is metabolized

33

Excretion (define)
What is the major site of excretion?

The movement of the drug out of the body
Kidneys

34

What is an example of a water-soluble vitamin?

Vit. C

35

What are the 4 fat-soluble vitamins (do not get peed out-stored in adipose)

A, D, E, and K

36

What are some other excretion routes?

Bile/stool
Sweat/saliva
Lungs
Breast milk

37

Half-life

The time it takes for a drug level to drop by half

38

How many half-lives occur before a drug reaches steady state?

4

39

Loading dose

A large initial dose to make a drug reach steady state quicker

40

Pharmacodynamics

How drugs work

41

Agonists

Activate receptors. They can activate the "brake" or they can activate the "gas pedal"..point is they are activators

42

Antagonists

Block receptors. They can block the "brake" or they can block the "gas pedal"..point is they are blockers

43

Affinity

Attraction to the receptor

44

Intrinsic activity

Stronger connection to activate a receptor

45

What is the ED50? Is this the same with all patients?

Effective dose 50
No

46

If the initial dose differs by a small amount (10-20%), should we notify the prescriber? Why or why not?

No. If it's 10-20% higher or lower than the recommended dose it is okay. Every patient is different, and some patients need slightly higher (or lower) doses than others