Flashcards in Chapters 1-5 Deck (46)
Study of drugs and their interactions with living systems
The study of drugs in humans
The use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy
Greek word meaning remedy or poison
What are the three top drug concerns?
What are the 7 other concerns about drugs?
Reversibility, Predictability, Convenience, Interactions, Cost, Shelf-life, and Confusing Names
What are the 6 rights?
Patient, drug, dose, route, time, documentation
Which testing is done in animals?
What are the 4 parts to clinical testing?
I. Healthy Volunteers
II. Patients (Small)
III. Patients (Large)
IV. Post marketing surveillance
What are the 4 aspects to randomized controlled trials (RCT)?
What are three problems with RCTs?
Short time periods
Be aware of greed: Ghost writers
Many articles published in medical journals are written by drug companies, then the company pays a doctor or a professor to put their name on the article
Be aware of greed: Patent extenders
The drug is altered in an insignificant way, but sold at higher costs
Be aware of greed: Trade names
Used to boost products, but causes safety problems and confusion
Movement of drugs
What are the three ways drugs cross through the membranes?
Channels or pores
Can they go through a membrane via direct penetration?
Atom that has an electrical charge (either - or +)
Acids ____ protons
Bases ____ protons
The movement of the drug into the bloodstream
What are the 5 absorption factors?
Rate of dissolution
Surface area (sidenote: intestines have a massive surface area)
pH partitioning (ion trapping)
What are the two major drug administration routes?
Enteral (PO, NG tube, G tube, Rectal)
Parenteral (IV, IM, Sub Cut, ID)
The movement of the drug from the bloodstream into tissues
What are the three distribution factors?
Exiting capillary bed
Entering the cell
If a drug is lipid soluble and attached to a protein, will it still be able to get out of the tissue?
What is Pgp and what does it do?
Blocks some lipid soluble drugs
What are 5 locations of Pgp?
The alteration of a drug's structure via enzymes
Where is the main location for metabolism?
What is the family of enzymes whose job is to break down drugs?
Cytochrome P450 Family (CYP)
What are the three metabolism outcomes?
Change in activity
Change in toxicity
When you swallow a drug but it doesn't have any affect until it reaches its site of metabolism and is metabolized
What is the major site of excretion?
The movement of the drug out of the body
What is an example of a water-soluble vitamin?
What are the 4 fat-soluble vitamins (do not get peed out-stored in adipose)
A, D, E, and K
What are some other excretion routes?
The time it takes for a drug level to drop by half
How many half-lives occur before a drug reaches steady state?
A large initial dose to make a drug reach steady state quicker
How drugs work
Activate receptors. They can activate the "brake" or they can activate the "gas pedal"..point is they are activators
Block receptors. They can block the "brake" or they can block the "gas pedal"..point is they are blockers
Attraction to the receptor
Stronger connection to activate a receptor
What is the ED50? Is this the same with all patients?
Effective dose 50