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Flashcards in Hip bone Deck (16):
1

what are the 3 articulations of the hip bones?

1. sacroiliac joint - sacral with ilium
2. pubic symphysis - the 2 hip bones (between the 2 pubis)
3. hip joint - articulates iliac with head of humerus

2

what are the 3 parts of the hip bone and what joins them together?

1. ilium
2. ischium
3. pubis
the 3 parts are joined together by triradiate cartilage which fuses together at puberty and forms the 'socket' joint (acetabulum) for articulation of the head of femur --> hip joint

3

what is the pelvic girdle?

bony structure connecting axial skeleton to lower limb

4

Ilium

the largest + widest part of the pelvis, forms superior acetabulum, expands to form 'wing' (ala)
has 2 surface: iliac fossa (concave) + gluteal surface (convex)
the top is thickened forming iliac crest, spanning from anterior superior iliac spine --> posterior superior iliac spine

5

which muscles attach to the ilium?

1. iliac muscles @ iliac fossa
2. gluteal muscles @ anterior, posterior, inferior lines
anterior superior iliac spine, anterior inferior iliac spine, posterior superior iliac spine

6

clinical: anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) as a landmark?

inguinal ligament runs from ASIS to pubic tubercle (top of pubic symphysis) , femoral artery mid-way along ASIS, femoral vein medial to femoral artery

7

what is a patient's true leg length? how is it different to apparent leg length?

true leg length: measured from ASIS --> medial malleolus (most distal part of tibia)
apparent leg length: umbilicus (near belly button) --> medial malleolus

8

pubis

most anterior part of pelvis, has body and 2 rami (branches): superior and inferior
superior rami projects laterally, forms inferior part of acelabulum
inferior rami projects towards body, other end joining with ischium
the 2 opposite bodies articulate at the pubic symphysis
the 2 rami enclose the obturator foramen: obturator nerve, artery + vein passes through to reach lower limb

9

ischium

posterioinferior part of hip bone, formed by ischium
composed of body, superior and inferior rami
inferior ischial rami: combines with pubis inferior rami to form ischiopubic rami (enclosing part of obturator foramen)
posterior ischial rami: forms ischial tuberosities --> weight falls here when sitting

10

Landmarks of posterior ischium

indentation: lesser sciatic notch
most inferior edge: ischial spine

11

name the 2 important ligaments attaching to the ischium

1. sacrospinous ligament
2. sacrotuberous ligament

12

sacrospinous ligament

from ischial spine to sacrum
creates greater sciatic foramen (lower limb neurovasculature esp. sciatic nerve and piriformis muscles travel through

13

sacrotuberous ligament

from ischial tuberosity (posterior ischium) to sacrum, and posterior superior iliac spine
forming lesser sciatic foramen

14

Fractures of the pelvic bones causes?

1. direct trauma to pelvic bones e.g. vehicular accident
2. forces transmitted from the lower limb e.g. heavy fall on feet

15

where does fractures of pelvic bones normally occur?

weaker points of bones:
pubic rami (branches of pubis), acetabulum 'socket', region of sacroiliac joint

16

what's a common complication of pelvic fracture?

soft tissue injury esp. bladder + uretha