Movements of the hip joint + clinical Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Movements of the hip joint + clinical Deck (19):

What does the degree of flexion at the hip depend on?

whether the knee is flexed
when the knee is flexed, the hamstrings are relaxed and increases the range of flexion


What is extension of the hip joint limited by?

joint capsule esp. iliofemoral ligament (antierior superior one)
they become taut during extension to limit further movement


Which muscles are responsible for flexion of the hip joint?

iliopsoas, rectus femoris, sartorius


Which muscles are responsible for extension of the hip joint?

gluteus maximus, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris


Which muscles are responsible for abduction of the hip?

gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, deep gluteals (piriformis, gemellus superior + inferior, obturator externus + internus, quadratus femoris)


Which muscles are responsible for adduction of the hip?

adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, pectineus, gracillis


Which muscles are responsible for lateral rotation of the hip?

biceps femoris
gluteus maximus
deep gluteals (piriformis, gemelli etc.)


Which muscles are responsible for medial rotation of the hip?

gluteus medius + minimus


Fracture to the neck of femur

in 40yrs, femoral neck fractures from falls - more likely in women (have brittle necks from osteoporosis)
affected limb laterally rotated, arteries from medial circumflex femoral artery usually torn, disrupting blood supply --> avascular necrosis of femoral head + neck


what are the movements that can be carried out at the hip joint?

flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial / lateral rotation


Surgical hip replacement

PLASTIC SOCKET is cemented to the hip bone to replace the Acetabulum
STAINLESS STEEL femoral stem and head replaces the FEMUR
usually performed after traumatic injury, or DEGENERATIVE disease of the joint


What are the 2 ways of obtaining a hip dislocation?

acquired and congenital


How does congenital dislocation occur? What does it predispose the patient to?

more common in girls, during development, femoral head is not placed within the acetabulum

predispose to arthritis of the hip in later life


What are the common symptoms of congenital dislocation of femoral head?

1. inability to ABduct at the hip joint
2. affected limb is shorter
3. positive Trendelenburg sign


How do acquired dislocation of the hip occur?

uncommon due to strength and stability of joint
usually in traumatic accidents


What are the 2 types of acquired dislocations that can occur?

posterior and anterior dislocation


What is posterior dislocation?

more common
femoral head is forced posteriorly
tears through the inferior and posterior part of the joint capsule
affected limb becomes SHORTened and MEDIALLY rotated


What can be damaged in posterior dislocation? Why? What does it cause?

sciatic nerve as it runs posteriorly to the hip joint
can cause paralysis of the hamstrings + muscles distal to the knee


What is anterior dislocation of the hip?

far more rare
consequence of extension, ABduction + lateral rotation
femoral head ends up anterior + inferior to acetabulum
often pulls acetabular labrum (steepen socket) with it