Muscles of gluteal region Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Muscles of gluteal region Deck (19):

Name the 6 deep, lateral rotators

1. piriformis
2. obturator internus
3. obturator externus
4. quadatus femorus
5. gemellus superior
6. gemellus inferior


Name the 3 gluteal muscles

gluteal maximums, gluteal medius, gluteus minimus


Where is the gluteal region?

posterior to pelvic girdle, proximal end of femur


what do muscles of the gluteal region do?

move the lower limb at hip joint


what are the 2 groups that the muscles of the gluteal region are divided into?

1. superficial abductors (up) + extenders (back)
2. deep lateral rotators


superficial abductors + extensors

gluteus maximus
gluteus medius
gluteus minimus
tensor fascia lata
(all abduct (up) + extend (back) femur)


Deep lateral rotators

laterally rotate femur
quadratus femoris
gemellus superior
gemellus inferior
obturator internus


gluteus maximus

largest of superficial muscles
origin: posterior (gluteal) surface of ilium, sacrum + coccyx
Insertion: iliotibial tract (between ilium + tibia) + greater trochanter of femur
Actions: extensor of thigh + lateral rotation
innervation: inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2)
Artery: inferior + superior gluteal arteries


gluteus medius

fan shaped
Origin: gluteal surface of ilium
insertion: lateral surface of greater trochanter
Action: ABduct + medial rotation, posterior fibres in lateral rotation
Innervation: superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1)
Artery: superior gluteal artery


gluteus minimus

deepest + smallest
Origin: ilium
Insertion: anterior greater trochanter
Action: ABduct + medial rotation (secure pelvis during locomotion)
Nerve: superior gluteal nerve
Artery: superior gluteal artery


Tensor Fascia lata

Origin: anterior superior iliac crest + anterior superior iliac spine
Insertion: anterior superior iliac spine (ISIS)
Actions: ABduction + medial rotation of lower limb, important in gait cycle
Innervation: superior gluteal nerve
Artery: superior gluteal & lateral circumflex femoral artery


Clinical: damage to superior gluteal nerve

superior gluteal nerve innervates gluteus minimus + medius
contract when standing (in locomotion when the contralateral leg is raised - in walking) to prevent pelvis dropping on raised leg side
pelvis unsteady when SGnerve damaged - trendelenberg sign


what is Trendelenberg sign?

patient is asked to stand unassisted on each leg (in turn)
positive sign when pelvis drop
if left muscles weak - pelvis will drop on right side when right leg up
pelvic drop measured by looking at level of iliac crest


function of deep muscles

lateral rotation
stabilise hip by pulling in the femoral head into the acetabulum (socket of hip bone into which femur fits into) of the pelvis



most superior of depe muscles
Origin: anterior surface of sacrum
Travels: inferolaterally through greater sciatic foamen
insertion: greater trochanter of femur
Action: lateral rotation + ABduction
Innervation: nerve to piriformis
Artery: superior + inferior gluteal + internal pudendal arteries (branch off common iliac)


obturator internus

forms lateral wall of pelvic cavity
Origin: Obturator foramen (pubis + ischium)
Travel: lesser sciatic foramen
Attachment: greater trochanter of foramen
Action: ABduction + lateral rotation
Innervation: nerve to obturator internus
Artery: internal pudendal + superior & inferior gluteal artery


The Gemelli

2 narrow, triangular muscles, separated by obturator internus tendon
Origin: superior --> ischial spine, inferior --> ischial tuberosity
Attachment: greater trochanter of femur
Action: lateral rotation + ABduction
Innervation: superior --> nerve to obturator internus, inferior --> nerve to quadratus femoris


quadratus femoris

flat squared shaped muscle, most interior of deep muscles, inferior
Origin: lateral of ischial tuberosity
Insertion: quadrate tuberosity on intertrochanteric crest (between greater + lesser tuberosity)
Action: lateral rotation
Innervation: nerve to quadratus femoris
Artery: inferior gluteal artery, medial circumflex femoral artery, obturator artery


what is the landmark of the Gluteal region and why?

piriformis muscle, separates nerves and artery to superior and inferior of the gluteal region
used to locate sciatic nerve - directly inferior to piriformis (visible flat band)