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Flashcards in The hip joint Deck (22):
1

What is articulated within the hip joint?

head of femur and acetabulum of the pelvis

2

What does the hip joint join?

lower limb to pelvic girdle

3

How is the hip joint designed?

stable weight bearing joint
large range of movement sacrificed for stability

4

What is both the acetabulum and head of femur covered in?

articular cartilage - thicker at places of weight bearing (acetabulum fossa?)

5

What are the groups of ligaments present at the hip joint? what is their function?

intrascapsular and extracapsular
increase stability

6

What are the intracapsular ligaments present on in the hip joint? where does it run from?

ligament of head of femur
runs from acetabular fossa to FOVEA of femur
encloses a branch of obturator artery - small proportion of hip joint blood

7

What are the extracapsular ligaments present?

iliofemoral
pubofemoral
ischiofemoral

8

What type of joint is the hip joint?

ball & socket

9

Where is the iliofemoral ligament?
What does it prevent?

located anteriorly
originates directly inferior to the AIIS (anterior inferior iliac spine)
inserts on the intertrochanteric line in 2 places - Y shape

prevents hyperextension of the hip joint

10

Where is the pubofemoral ligament located?
What does it prevent?

anteriorly & inferiorly
from superior rami of pubis to intertrochanteric line of femur (anterior)

prevents excessive abduction & exension

11

Where is the ischiofemoral ligament located?
What does it prevent?

posteriorly
originates from ischium to posterior neck of femur
blends in with fibres of joint capsule
prevents excessive extension of the femur at the hip joint (pop out of socket)

12

Which artery supplies the hip joint?

medial & lateral circumflex femoral arteries
and artery to the head of femur (branch of obturator artery?)

13

Which artery is responsible for the majority of the arterial supply to the hip joint? Why?

medial circumflex artery
the lateral circumflex artery has to penetrate through the thick iliofemoral ligament (anterior) to reach the hip joint

14

What can damage to the medial circumflex femoral artery lead to?

avascular necrosis of the femoral head
the arterial supply goes from distal to proximal

15

Which nerves innervate the hip joint?

femoral nerve, obturator nerve, superior gluteal nerve and nerve to quadratus femoris

16

What is the primary function of the hip joint?

weight bearing

17

Which structures are there in the hip joint to increase its stability?

1. acetabulum
2. acetabular labrum
3. ligament's spiral orientation when joint is extended

18

How does the acetabulum increase stability of the hip joint?

deep
encompasses nearly ALL of head of femur
decreases probability of head slipping out of acetabulum --> dislocation

19

How does the acetabular labrum increase stability of the hip joint?

a fibrocartilaginous collar around the acetabulum, increasing acetabulum's depth --> providing large articular surface, therefore improving stability of the joint

20

How do the ligaments help with stability of the hip joint?

iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral ligaments are v strong
along with thickened joint capsule (labrum) - stabilise joint
ligaments have spiral orientation when the joint is extended, causing ligaments to become tighter - aiding stability
means less energy is needed to maintain standing position

21

How do muscles and ligaments work in a reciprocal fashion at the anterior hip joint?

anterior is where ligaments are strongest in the hip joint
medial flexors (anterior) are fewer and weaker - muscles

when ligaments strong, muscles weak

22

How do muscles and ligaments work in a reciprocal fashion at the posterior hip joint?

ligaments are weakest in the posterior hip joint, so there are more medial rotators and they are stronger
medial rotators 'pull' head of femur into acetabulum