Flashcards in Introduction to Functional Organisation of the CNS Deck (91):
What makes up the CNS?
What makes up the PNS?
Where does the long axis of the CNS bend?
What is the basic structure of the brain?
How many nuclei make up the basal ganglia?
What do the basal ganglia do?
Control motion and movement
What does the limbic system do?
What is grey matter?
Cell bodies of CNS
Where is grey matter in the brain?
Edge of cerebrum
How thick is grey matter in the brain?
What is white matter?
What are axons?
Long processes from neurons
What is myelin?
Insulating sheath around axons to allow transmission of information over long distances rapidly
What is a T1 MRI image similar to?
Anatomical picture - white matter is white
What is the cerebrum divided into?
Two cerebral hemispheres
What divides the two cerebral hemispheres?
What is a ridge called?
Gyrus; pl: gyri
What is a groove called?
Sulcus; pl: sulci
What is the cerebrum responsible for?
Thing that makes us, us
What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?
How are the four lobes divided?
Broadly separated by specific structural locations
What is the functional significance of the cerebral lobes?
Have broad functional differences - not specific
What does the frontal lobe broadly control?
What does the parietal lobe broadly control?
What divides the frontal and parietal lobes?
Where is the precentral gyrus?
In frontal lobe anterior to central sulcus
Where is the postcentral gyrus?
In parietal lobe posterior to central sulcus
What are Brodmann areas based on?
Do Brodmann areas have any significance?
Yes, they have some significance
Most advanced method of labelling brain
What do PET scans identify?
Areas that are metabolically active with certain stimuli
Which lobe is active when hearing words?
Which lobe is active when seeing words?
Which lobes are active when speaking words?
Frontal and parietal lobes
What does the cerebellum do?
Compares what you want to do with what you are doing
Refines motor program
How can you test cerebellar function?
Touch nose with finger
If there's a problem, person can't touch nose because muscle movements aren't corrected
What proportion of the neurons of the brain does the cerebellum have?
What are the basal ganglia involved in?
What do the basal ganglia do?
Select and initiate voluntary movement
Which part of the brain do the basal ganglia connect to and work with?
What are two diseases involving basal ganglia?
What are the five nuclei of the basal ganglia?
What makes up the striatum?
Where are the basal ganglia located?
Close to midline
Where is the substantia nigra located?
Where is the thalamus?
Where is the diencephalon?
A wall in the middle of the brain
What is the thalamus responsible for?
Sensory relay to cortex
What type of input is sensory input?
What is the thalamus made up of?
What is the broad role of thalamic nuclei?
What three ways do thalamic nuclei project?
Relay sensory information
Relay non-sensory information from cortex and basal ganglia to specific areas
Project globally to cortex
- Controls arousal and sleep
- Secondary role
Where is the hypothalamus?
Floor of diencephalon
In middle of brain near midline
What does the hypothalamus do?
What does the hypothalamus control?
Blood pressure and electrolyte levels
What does the brain stem control?
Unconscious survival functions
- Complex reflexes
What are cranial nerves?
Sensory and motor control to face and deeper structures
What part of the brain does the spinal cord continue on from?
Medulla in brain stem
What encloses the spinal cord?
Where is the grey matter in the spinal cord?
What is the spinal cord grey matter divided into?
What is the spinal cord white matter divided into?
What information does the dorsal part of the spinal cord carry?
What information does the ventral part of the spinal cord carry?
Where does the spinal cord end?
T/F: Each vertebra has corresponding spinal segment
How many nerves does each spinal segment give rise to?
What is the cauda equina
Continues on from spinal cord
Individual strands of lumbar nerves
What forms a spinal nerve?
What information does the dorsal root carry?
What information does the ventral root carry?
What is in a dorsal root ganglion?
What type of nerve is a spinal nerve, in terms of information?
What type of nerve are most peripheral nerves?
What is a dermatome?
Region of body innervated by bilateral pair of dorsal root ganglia
What is the ventricular system?
Hollow centre of brain forming ventricles
What does the brain sit in?
Where is CSF made?
What are the names of the ventricles?
- Close to midline
- Near diencephalon
- Near cerebellum
What makes CSF?
Vascular choroid plexus
What is CSF?
What is the choroid plexus?
Specialised epithelial cells
Where is the choroid plexus?
Where does CSF flow out of the ventricles?
At fourth ventricle
What is the role of CSF?
Protects brain from movement
What protects the brain?
What are the three layers of meninges, from out to in?
Where is CSF absorbed into the venous system?
What protects the ECF in the brain?
Blood brain barrier (BBB)
What is the BBB dependent on?
Tight junctions between endothelial cells in capillaries
What kind of transport is most common across the BBB?