Introduction to Functional Organisation of the CNS Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Introduction to Functional Organisation of the CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Functional Organisation of the CNS Deck (91):
1

What makes up the CNS?

Brain
Spinal cord
Retina

2

What makes up the PNS?

Nerves
Ganglia

3

Where does the long axis of the CNS bend?

Cephalic flexure

4

What is the basic structure of the brain?

Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Brain stem
Spinal cord
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Basal ganglia
Limbic system

5

How many nuclei make up the basal ganglia?

5

6

What do the basal ganglia do?

Control motion and movement

7

What does the limbic system do?

Regulate emotion

8

What is grey matter?

Cell bodies of CNS

9

Where is grey matter in the brain?

Edge of cerebrum

10

How thick is grey matter in the brain?

0.5 cm

11

What is white matter?

Axons

12

What are axons?

Long processes from neurons

13

What is myelin?

Insulating sheath around axons to allow transmission of information over long distances rapidly

14

What is a T1 MRI image similar to?

Anatomical picture - white matter is white

15

What is the cerebrum divided into?

Two cerebral hemispheres

16

What divides the two cerebral hemispheres?

Longitudinal fissure

17

What is a ridge called?

Gyrus; pl: gyri

18

What is a groove called?

Sulcus; pl: sulci

19

What is the cerebrum responsible for?

Thing that makes us, us
Language
Emotions
Self-awareness
Behaviour

20

What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?

Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital

21

How are the four lobes divided?

Broadly separated by specific structural locations

22

What is the functional significance of the cerebral lobes?

Limited
Have broad functional differences - not specific

23

What does the frontal lobe broadly control?

Motor control

24

What does the parietal lobe broadly control?

Sensory control

25

What divides the frontal and parietal lobes?

Central sulcus

26

Where is the precentral gyrus?

In frontal lobe anterior to central sulcus

27

Where is the postcentral gyrus?

In parietal lobe posterior to central sulcus

28

What are Brodmann areas based on?

Cellular differences

29

Do Brodmann areas have any significance?

Yes, they have some significance
Most advanced method of labelling brain

30

What do PET scans identify?

Areas that are metabolically active with certain stimuli

31

Which lobe is active when hearing words?

Temporal lobe

32

Which lobe is active when seeing words?

Occipital lobe

33

Which lobes are active when speaking words?

Frontal and parietal lobes

34

What does the cerebellum do?

Compares what you want to do with what you are doing
Refines motor program

35

How can you test cerebellar function?

Touch nose with finger
If there's a problem, person can't touch nose because muscle movements aren't corrected

36

What proportion of the neurons of the brain does the cerebellum have?

Half

37

What are the basal ganglia involved in?

Motor control

38

What do the basal ganglia do?

Select and initiate voluntary movement

39

Which part of the brain do the basal ganglia connect to and work with?

Cortex

40

What are two diseases involving basal ganglia?

Parkinson's disease
Huntington's disease

41

What are the five nuclei of the basal ganglia?

Caudate
Putamen
Globus pallidus
Subthalamic nuclei
Substantia nigra

42

What makes up the striatum?

Caudate
Putamen

43

Where are the basal ganglia located?

Close to midline

44

Where is the substantia nigra located?

Brain stem

45

Where is the thalamus?

In diencephalon

46

Where is the diencephalon?

A wall in the middle of the brain

47

What is the thalamus responsible for?

Sensory relay to cortex

48

What type of input is sensory input?

Afferent

49

What is the thalamus made up of?

Many nuclei

50

What is the broad role of thalamic nuclei?

Integrate info

51

What three ways do thalamic nuclei project?

Relay sensory information
Relay non-sensory information from cortex and basal ganglia to specific areas
Project globally to cortex
- Controls arousal and sleep
- Secondary role

52

Where is the hypothalamus?

Floor of diencephalon
In middle of brain near midline

53

What does the hypothalamus do?

Regulate homeostasis

54

What does the hypothalamus control?

Blood pressure and electrolyte levels
Temperature
Reproduction
Energy metabolism
Stress responses

55

What does the brain stem control?

Unconscious survival functions
- HR
- Breathing
- Complex reflexes
- Sneezing
- Coughing

56

What are cranial nerves?

Sensory and motor control to face and deeper structures

57

What part of the brain does the spinal cord continue on from?

Medulla in brain stem

58

What encloses the spinal cord?

Vertebrae

59

Where is the grey matter in the spinal cord?

Core

60

What is the spinal cord grey matter divided into?

Dorsal horns
Ventral horns
Intermediate zone

61

What is the spinal cord white matter divided into?

Dorsal columns
Ventral columns
Lateral columns

62

What information does the dorsal part of the spinal cord carry?

Sensory

63

What information does the ventral part of the spinal cord carry?

Motor

64

Where does the spinal cord end?

Around L1/L2

65

T/F: Each vertebra has corresponding spinal segment

True

66

How many nerves does each spinal segment give rise to?

Two

67

What is the cauda equina

Continues on from spinal cord
Individual strands of lumbar nerves

68

What forms a spinal nerve?

Dorsal root
Ventral root

69

What information does the dorsal root carry?

Sensory

70

What information does the ventral root carry?

Motor

71

What is in a dorsal root ganglion?

Neuronal somata

72

What type of nerve is a spinal nerve, in terms of information?

Mixed

73

What type of nerve are most peripheral nerves?

Mixed

74

What is a dermatome?

Region of body innervated by bilateral pair of dorsal root ganglia

75

What is the ventricular system?

Hollow centre of brain forming ventricles

76

What does the brain sit in?

Fluid

77

Where is CSF made?

Ventricles

78

What are the names of the ventricles?

Lateral ventricle
- Largest
- Close to midline
Third ventricle
- Near diencephalon
Fourth ventricle
- Near cerebellum

79

What makes CSF?

Vascular choroid plexus

80

What is CSF?

Ultrafiltrate plasma
No cells
Little protein

81

What is the choroid plexus?

Specialised epithelial cells

82

Where is the choroid plexus?

In ventricles

83

Where does CSF flow out of the ventricles?

At fourth ventricle

84

What is the role of CSF?

Nourishes brain
Protects brain from movement

85

What protects the brain?

Skull
Meninges

86

What are the three layers of meninges, from out to in?

Dura
- Thickest
Arachnoid
- Fibrous
Pia
- Thinnest

87

Where is CSF absorbed into the venous system?

Arachnoid mater

88

What protects the ECF in the brain?

Blood brain barrier (BBB)

89

What is the BBB dependent on?

Tight junctions between endothelial cells in capillaries

90

What kind of transport is most common across the BBB?

Active transport

91

What happens when the BBB breaks down?

Neuron death
Immune cells of CNS enter body > wreak havoc

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