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Flashcards in IV therapy Deck (16)
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1

isotonic solutions

250-375 mOsm/L
- NS (0.9% NaCl)
- D5W (5% dextrose in water)
- Ringer's lactate

2

Hypotonic solns

below 250 mOsm/L
- 0.45% NaCl (1/2 NS)

fluid leaves blood -> cells (hydrates cells, lowers blood Na+, can cause HYPOTENSION)

3

Hypertonic solns

over 375 mOsm/L
- most vitamin/mineral infusions

can cause circulatory overload, irritates vein walls, may be painful --> give slowly (1-5 mL/min); use large vein (not hand)

4

Osmolarity calculation

[(Vol (mL) x mOsm/mL) / Vol] x 1000

5

Tx for Phlebitis

= redness/swelling of vein. this occurs commonly (less common in short infusions); 100% (high) risk with hypertonic >600 mOsm; moderate risk 450-600 mOsm, low risk 150-450 mOsm
Tx: prevention, slow IV, flush with NS, D/C line, apply ice

6

pH for blood, pH for IV mixtures

blood 7.35-7.45
IV should be b/w 5-9

7

What IV nutrients does Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) interact with

- EDTA
- Mg+

8

What problem can Rauwolfia/Reserpine cause when IV nutrients are given

makes autonomic response to sudden hypotnesion (Mg, Ca, EDTA) SLOW or impossible

9

Beta blockers interact with what IV nutrient

Magnesium

10

Most common IV nutrient cause of hypoglycemia

high dose IV Vit C and EDTA chelation (have Pt eat during these)

11

What IV nutrients will reverse hypoglycemia?

D5W infusion OR slow push of D-50 (50% dextrose) -- 5-50 mL D50 will reverse

12

effect of isotonic soln on intravascular compartment (blood) & fluid overload potential

increases volume of blood (hydrates ECF); MODERATE fluid overload potential

13

effect of hypotonic soln on intravascular compartment (blood) & fluid overload potential

dehydrates blood (moves to cells); NO fluid overload potential

14

effect of hypertonic soln on intravascular compartment (blood) & fluid overload potential

greatly increases volume (dehydrates cells); HIGH potential for fluid overload

15

D5W isotonic or hypotonic

both - starts isotonic but can act hypotonic if Pt metabolizes sugar quickly

16

what to use for rehydration

Isotonic solution (NS, Ringers, D5W)
- NEVER sterile water