Nervous System Flashcards Preview

my NPLEX II > Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (62)
Loading flashcards...
1

what are common signs and symptoms of brain neoplasms

-gradual onset
-focal neuro defects
-seizures
-headache
-confusion
-n/v, papilledema

2

diagnostic study of choice for brain neoplasm

MRI with contrast

3

% of brain neoplasms that are metastasis from other primary sites

1/2

4

what primary cancer sites metastasis to the brain?

lung, breast, melanoma, colon

5

which inherited disease increase risk of brain tumors?

neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
retinoblastoma

6

most common type of brain neoplasm?

gliomas in the brain or spinal cord

7

List the major subtypes of gliomas

astrocytoma (35%) oligodendeogliomas, ependymomas (2%)

8

gliomas are more common in

males

9

what are the most common brain neoplasms in women?

Meningiomas (20%) schwannomas

10

what are the common signs and symptoms of acoustic neuroma? (vestibular schwannoma)

hearing loss (cochlear nerve)
imbalance ( vestibular nerve)

11

diagnostic imaging for acoustic neuroma?

MRI with gadolinium enhancement

12

what causes botulism?

Clostridium botulinum: neurotoxin

13

what are the 2 routes to be infected with botulism?

1. foodborne from canned food or raw honey
2. wound from trauma or IV drug use

14

adult prodromal signs & sxs of foodborne botulism?

GI: N/V, dysphagia, dry mouth
neuro: sudden onset diplopia, dilated, and fixed pupils

15

wound-borne vs foodborne botulism?

no GI symptoms in wound botulism

16

how fast does botulism progress?

12-36 hours and progress quickly over 1-2 days

17

how would you describe the paralysis in botulism?

bilateral DESCENDING flaccid paralysis

18

what are the SENSORY deficits associated with botulism?

blurred vision

19

how high is the fever in botulism?

no fever

20

what is a likely sequelae of botulism?

respiratory arrest and/or death

21

if you have recovered from botulism, will you have future immunity?

NO

22

what is an inflammation of the brain called?

encephalitis

23

what usually causes encephalitis?

1. secondary to virus : HSV or west nile
2. bacterial: mycoplasma pneumonia
3. fungal
4. autoimmune SLE or Hashimotos
5. trauma

24

signs and sxs of encephalitis

fever
altered conciousness
personality changes, confusion
seizures
stiff neck
n/v
focal neurological deficits
rash

25

Diagnostic test for encephalitis

CSF

26

ddx for encephalitis

-meningitis (can coexist with encephalitis)
-lyme
-syphilis
-CVA
-drug or alcohol intoxication
-intracranial tumor

27

RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING POLYNEUROPATHY

guillan-barre

28

what are common causes of Guillan barre syndrome

1. post-viral 2-4 weeks or bacterial illness (2/3 cases) - resp most common and then GI
2. post vaccination
3. medication use: penicillin and anti-motility drug

29

bacteria associated with GBS

C JEJUNI

30

signs and symptoms of GBS

** progressive ASCENDING symmetric muscle weakness starting in the fingers and lower extremities
2. parasthesias, numbness
3. pain: shoulder girdle, back, butt, thighs
4. autonomic changes
5. SOB, resp
6. bladder/bowel change