Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (62)
what are common signs and symptoms of brain neoplasms
-focal neuro defects
diagnostic study of choice for brain neoplasm
MRI with contrast
% of brain neoplasms that are metastasis from other primary sites
what primary cancer sites metastasis to the brain?
lung, breast, melanoma, colon
which inherited disease increase risk of brain tumors?
neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
most common type of brain neoplasm?
gliomas in the brain or spinal cord
List the major subtypes of gliomas
astrocytoma (35%) oligodendeogliomas, ependymomas (2%)
gliomas are more common in
what are the most common brain neoplasms in women?
Meningiomas (20%) schwannomas
what are the common signs and symptoms of acoustic neuroma? (vestibular schwannoma)
hearing loss (cochlear nerve)
imbalance ( vestibular nerve)
diagnostic imaging for acoustic neuroma?
MRI with gadolinium enhancement
what causes botulism?
Clostridium botulinum: neurotoxin
what are the 2 routes to be infected with botulism?
1. foodborne from canned food or raw honey
2. wound from trauma or IV drug use
adult prodromal signs & sxs of foodborne botulism?
GI: N/V, dysphagia, dry mouth
neuro: sudden onset diplopia, dilated, and fixed pupils
wound-borne vs foodborne botulism?
no GI symptoms in wound botulism
how fast does botulism progress?
12-36 hours and progress quickly over 1-2 days
how would you describe the paralysis in botulism?
bilateral DESCENDING flaccid paralysis
what are the SENSORY deficits associated with botulism?
how high is the fever in botulism?
what is a likely sequelae of botulism?
respiratory arrest and/or death
if you have recovered from botulism, will you have future immunity?
what is an inflammation of the brain called?
what usually causes encephalitis?
1. secondary to virus : HSV or west nile
2. bacterial: mycoplasma pneumonia
4. autoimmune SLE or Hashimotos
signs and sxs of encephalitis
personality changes, confusion
focal neurological deficits
Diagnostic test for encephalitis
ddx for encephalitis
-meningitis (can coexist with encephalitis)
-drug or alcohol intoxication
RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING POLYNEUROPATHY
what are common causes of Guillan barre syndrome
1. post-viral 2-4 weeks or bacterial illness (2/3 cases) - resp most common and then GI
2. post vaccination
3. medication use: penicillin and anti-motility drug
bacteria associated with GBS