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Flashcards in Respiratory COPY Deck (78)
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What are the potential consequences of Group A Strep throat if left untreated?

1.) Suppurative Complications
a.) Otitis Media, Sinusitis
b.) Pneumonia
c.) Mastoiditis
2.) Direct Extension
a.) Retropharyngeal Abscess
3.) Scarlet Fever & Rheumatic Fever
4.) Hematogenous Spread
a.) Bone - Osteomyelitis
b.) Meningitis


What type of hypersensitivity is Asthma?

Type 1 involving IgE


What nutraceutical can be given to patients experiencing significant fatigue associated with CMV?

CoQ10 500mg


What condition is associated with a grey pseudomembranous pharynx



What is Rheumatic Fever?

An inflammatory cross-reaction (molecular mimicry) due of GAS infection characterized by:

1.) Subcutaneous nodules = pea sized, firm, non-tender on extensor surfaces
2.) Pancarditis (Pericardium, Myocardium, Endocardium)
3.) Arthritis (migratory) = very tender, red, warm, swollen joints
4.) Chorea (Sydenham's Chorea)
5.) Erythema marginatum = pink macules on the trunk with central blanching (non-pruritic)

Mnemonic: SPACE


What complication of Strep Throat occurs irrespective of antibiotic treatment?

Acute Glomerulonephritis


Local health authorities need to be notified of Diphtheria immediately. What are its sequelae?

1.) Myocarditis
2.) Peripheral Nerve Palsy
3.) Respiratory distress


If the cardiac silhouette on a lung X-Ray is greater than what size (in relation to the chest wall) is it considered Cardiac Hypertrophy?

1/2 the width of the chest wall


This fungal infection most commonly presents as atypical pneumonia with patchy infiltrates on X Ray and with concomitant flu-like symptoms.

Histoplasmosis (carried by bat droppings)


Would a pulmonary embolism show up radiopaque or radiolucent on X-Ray?

Radiolucent on XRay


What is the term used to describe the alternation of tachypnea with apnea in patients with neurologic diseases or congestive heart failure?

Cheyne-Stokes Respiration


Would atelectasis result in radiopacity or radiolucency?



All patients with cryptococcal pneumonia should undergo what investigative study?

Lumbar Puncture to rule out a comorbid meningitis


Before taking a sputum culture, how do you prepare the mouth?

Rinse the mouth with sterile water to try and remove normal oral flora. The sample then needs to be preceded by a deep productive cough


X Ray shows apical lung lesions with calcification and fibrosis. This pathogen is diagnosed via sputum culture and biopsy- not serology



What condition produces Charcot-Leydon Crystals in the sputum?


These crystals are derived from eosinophils


Describe the spirometry features of Restrictive Lung Conditions

1.) Decreased Total Lung Capacity
2.) Decreased FVC, FEV1
3.) FEV1:FVC ratio is increased (>80%


What should acute onset of dyspnea with a normal chest X Ray be considered until proven otherwise?

Pulmonary Embolism


Histiologically, what happens in chronic bronchitis?

Mucinous hypertrophy. The Reid Index (ratio of mucinous glands relative to the total thickness of the bronchial wall) is > 50%

The mucinous hypertrophy explains why people with chronic bronchitis have a very productive cough


Why isn't mycoplasma pneumoniae visible on gram stain?

M. pneumoniae does not have a cell wall


This fungal infection is diagnosed by serological testing (IgM precipitins



Describe the spirometry findings of COPD

1.) Decreased FVC, FEV1, FEV1:FVC ratio

2.) Increased Total Lung Capacity (air trapping)


Percussion during a pneumothroax would reveal what type of sound?



Eosinophilic debris in the alveoli of patients working within the sandblasting, mining, or glass manufacturing industries?

Silicosis caused by the inhalation of Silicon dioxide


Where does secondary TB occur?

It typically occurs in the apex of the lung.

Secondary TB is the reactivation of TB from the Ghon complex of the lower lobe and is commonly associated with immunodeficiency


What is the most common cause of Secondary Pneumonia?

Staphylococcus aureus

Secondary pneumonia is a bacterial pneumonia superimposed on a viral pneumonia that knocked out the mucociliary escalator, making it easier for bacteria to colonize the bronchioles


Infectious lung condition that is acquired by inhalation of the pathogen's spores in Arizona, California, New Mexico, or Texas



1.) Mycoplasma pneumoniae produces what pattern of pneumonia?

2.) What population group are predisposed?

1.) Atypical (Interstitial) Pneumonia

2.) Military recruits, college students living in a dorm


What is the most common cause of atypical pneumonia?

Adults = Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Infants = RSV
Immunodeficient Patients = CMV


Pneumonia normally presents with a low fever. In one sub-classification of atypical pneumonia, patients may present with a high fever- termed Q Fever. What is the causative rickettsial agent?

Coxsiella burnetii

This version of atypical pneumonia is seen in farmers and veterinarians

Note: Coxsiella is an atypical rickettsial microorganism because it does not require an arthropod vector and does not cause a skin rash. It is also atypical because it causes pneumonia.