Flashcards in Respiratory COPY Deck (78)
What are the potential consequences of Group A Strep throat if left untreated?
1.) Suppurative Complications
a.) Otitis Media, Sinusitis
2.) Direct Extension
a.) Retropharyngeal Abscess
3.) Scarlet Fever & Rheumatic Fever
4.) Hematogenous Spread
a.) Bone - Osteomyelitis
What type of hypersensitivity is Asthma?
Type 1 involving IgE
What nutraceutical can be given to patients experiencing significant fatigue associated with CMV?
What condition is associated with a grey pseudomembranous pharynx
What is Rheumatic Fever?
An inflammatory cross-reaction (molecular mimicry) due of GAS infection characterized by:
1.) Subcutaneous nodules = pea sized, firm, non-tender on extensor surfaces
2.) Pancarditis (Pericardium, Myocardium, Endocardium)
3.) Arthritis (migratory) = very tender, red, warm, swollen joints
4.) Chorea (Sydenham's Chorea)
5.) Erythema marginatum = pink macules on the trunk with central blanching (non-pruritic)
What complication of Strep Throat occurs irrespective of antibiotic treatment?
Local health authorities need to be notified of Diphtheria immediately. What are its sequelae?
2.) Peripheral Nerve Palsy
3.) Respiratory distress
If the cardiac silhouette on a lung X-Ray is greater than what size (in relation to the chest wall) is it considered Cardiac Hypertrophy?
1/2 the width of the chest wall
This fungal infection most commonly presents as atypical pneumonia with patchy infiltrates on X Ray and with concomitant flu-like symptoms.
Histoplasmosis (carried by bat droppings)
Would a pulmonary embolism show up radiopaque or radiolucent on X-Ray?
Radiolucent on XRay
What is the term used to describe the alternation of tachypnea with apnea in patients with neurologic diseases or congestive heart failure?
Would atelectasis result in radiopacity or radiolucency?
All patients with cryptococcal pneumonia should undergo what investigative study?
Lumbar Puncture to rule out a comorbid meningitis
Before taking a sputum culture, how do you prepare the mouth?
Rinse the mouth with sterile water to try and remove normal oral flora. The sample then needs to be preceded by a deep productive cough
X Ray shows apical lung lesions with calcification and fibrosis. This pathogen is diagnosed via sputum culture and biopsy- not serology
What condition produces Charcot-Leydon Crystals in the sputum?
These crystals are derived from eosinophils
Describe the spirometry features of Restrictive Lung Conditions
1.) Decreased Total Lung Capacity
2.) Decreased FVC, FEV1
3.) FEV1:FVC ratio is increased (>80%
What should acute onset of dyspnea with a normal chest X Ray be considered until proven otherwise?
Histiologically, what happens in chronic bronchitis?
Mucinous hypertrophy. The Reid Index (ratio of mucinous glands relative to the total thickness of the bronchial wall) is > 50%
The mucinous hypertrophy explains why people with chronic bronchitis have a very productive cough
Why isn't mycoplasma pneumoniae visible on gram stain?
M. pneumoniae does not have a cell wall
This fungal infection is diagnosed by serological testing (IgM precipitins
Describe the spirometry findings of COPD
1.) Decreased FVC, FEV1, FEV1:FVC ratio
2.) Increased Total Lung Capacity (air trapping)
Percussion during a pneumothroax would reveal what type of sound?
Eosinophilic debris in the alveoli of patients working within the sandblasting, mining, or glass manufacturing industries?
Silicosis caused by the inhalation of Silicon dioxide
Where does secondary TB occur?
It typically occurs in the apex of the lung.
Secondary TB is the reactivation of TB from the Ghon complex of the lower lobe and is commonly associated with immunodeficiency
What is the most common cause of Secondary Pneumonia?
Secondary pneumonia is a bacterial pneumonia superimposed on a viral pneumonia that knocked out the mucociliary escalator, making it easier for bacteria to colonize the bronchioles
Infectious lung condition that is acquired by inhalation of the pathogen's spores in Arizona, California, New Mexico, or Texas
1.) Mycoplasma pneumoniae produces what pattern of pneumonia?
2.) What population group are predisposed?
1.) Atypical (Interstitial) Pneumonia
2.) Military recruits, college students living in a dorm
What is the most common cause of atypical pneumonia?
Adults = Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Infants = RSV
Immunodeficient Patients = CMV