Kidney and bladder pathology Flashcards Preview

MD3002 post MSA > Kidney and bladder pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidney and bladder pathology Deck (34):
1

what are the symptoms of urinary calculi

pain, nausea, vomiting
haematuria
secondary infection
flank pain radiating to the groin
dysuria
pus in urine

2

what are the risk factors for kidney stones

overweight
dehydration
poor diet
metabolic disease e.g. hyperparathyroidism
hypercalcaemia
gout
obstruction
genetic

3

what is hydronephrosis

kidneys become stretched due to a build up of urine in them

4

what is post renal kidney failure

due to obstruction

5

what might kidney stones be made of

calcium- oxalate or phosphate
uric acid
infection - proteus
cu

6

what is the most common bladder cancer

transitional cell carcinoma

7

what is the most common renal cancer

clear cell carcinoma

8

what is Wilms' tumour

usually occurs in children
renal nephroblastoma which is comprised of metanephric blastema
WT1 tumour supressor gene
good prognosis

9

What are the features of renal cell carcinoma

originates in PCT
mostly sporadic
smoking and obesity related
genetic component

10

what are the causes of renal cell carcinoma

smoking and obesity
chronic cystic disease
metastasises to the lungs

11

what are the most common features of bladder cancer

posterior and lateral wall
papillary

12

what is acute prerenal renal failure

something that decreases blood flow to the kidney eg shock, trauma

13

what are the causes of acute intrarenal failure

glomerulonephritides
toxic drugs
malignant hypertension
vasculitis
analgesics

14

what signs are present in renal failure

high potassium and creatinine

15

what is the causes of chronic prerenal failure

atherosclerosis

16

what are the causes of chronic renal renal failure

Some glomerulo-nephritides, diabetes, hypertension, polycysticKD, obstruction

17

what is glomerulonephritides

glomerular injury with an immunological component

18

what are the signs of chronic renal failure

•Potassium high
•Creatinine high
•May be oliguria
•Hypertension
•Anaemia
•Small kidneys

19

what is uropathy

obstruction of urine flow

20

what are the causes of obstructive uropathy

stricture
staghorn calculus
carcinoma of pelvis or ureter
blood clot
renal stone
fibrosis
pregnancy
cervical cancer
endometriosis
bladder cancer
BPH
urethral stricture
neuro damage

21

what does bilateral hydronephrosis indicate

post renal failure

22

what are the stigmata of renal failure

CNS disturbance
uraemic pericarditis
PVD
heart failure
nocturia
polyuria
odema
osteodystrophy
GI distrubance
skin problems
epistaxix
anaemia

23

what is osteomalacia

softening of the bones due to vitamin D or calcium deficiency

24

what is osteoporosis

brittle or fragile bones due to hormone changes or vitamin D/ calcium deficiency

25

what is osteopaenia

reduced mineral content of bone but not to the extent of osteoporosis

26

what can cause hypercalcaemia

hyperPTHism

27

what can increase the risk of renal cell carcinoma

smoking
obesity
chronic cystic disease

28

how might renal cell carcinoma progress

grows along the renal vein to IVC
metastasises to the lungs- cannonball lesions

29

what is renal osteodystrophy

kidneys fail to maintain proper levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood

30

when might you find small kidneys and anaemia

chronic renal failure

31

what is the post renal cause of kidney failure

obstruction

32

what are the prerenal causes of renal failure

acute- shock/ trauma
chronic- atherosclerosis

33

what are the possible effects of kidney failure

anaemia
immunosuppression
bone disease
neuropathy
neoplasia

34

what complications can arise from transplantation

infection
skin cancer- HPV
lymphoma
rejection
vascular rejection
chronic rejection