Atypical synapse in which synapse is along the axon
En passant synapse
What does the neuromuscular junction contain?
Enlarged terminal with synaptic vesicles, enlarged cleft, and the muscle sole plate
Where do we find multipolar neurons?
Throughout the CNS
Where do we find bipolar neurons?
In the "special sensory" regions
Where do we find unipolar neurons?
In the sensory ganglia (DRG)
Star-shaped granule cells are called?
Granule/stellate cells regulate
Regional information processing
What are three ways to classify a neuron based on its axon length?
Projection cells, interneurons, amacrine cells
T/F: Interneurons are generally excitatory
False. Interneurons remain within the region of a dendritic field and provide local synpatic interactions and feedback.
What are amacarine cells? Where are they primarily found?
Axon-less cells; retina and olfactory bulb
Three types of neuronal cell death
Necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy
What is different about microglial cell origins?
Derived from mesoderm, not ectoderm like astrocytes and oligodendrocytes
Broadly, microglia are the...
Resident macrophages of the CNS
Microglia can exist in resting states and active states. What are the two active states?
Non-phagocytic microglia (immediately responsive) and phagocytic microglia (apoptose neurons during development and respond to trauma)
What are the five main functions of astrocytes?
Structural/metabolic support, scaffolding during development, regulate ions/extracellular molecules, blood-brain barrier, CNS scars
Astrocytomas make up __% of primary brain tumors. What is the most common? Describe.
50%; Glioblastoma multiforme: fast-growing tumor cells surrounding necrotic region called pseudopalisading necrosis
What are the two histological characteristics of oligodendrogliomas?
"Fried egg" cells and "chicken wire" capillaries
What are tumors of ependymal cells called?
What characterizes ependymomas?
What are tumors of Schwann cells called? Describe.
Schwannomas; typically encapsulated and benign