Lectures 55-56: Cortex Flashcards Preview

Brain and Behavior > Lectures 55-56: Cortex > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lectures 55-56: Cortex Deck (60):
1

Ocular dominance columns are divided by...what layer?

Divided by eye; Layer 4C

2

What is the other type of radial column?

Orientation columns

3

Integration of color information occur by...these areas are called?

Projections superficially and deep to 4C; Colorful blobs

4

What are areas of achromatic regions called?

Interblobs!

5

Streams and fasciculi from visual cortex and information carried (2)

Dorsal stream/superior longitudinal fasciculus (where) and ventral stream/inferior longitudinal fasciculus (what)

6

Where pathway answers what question? Where does it project?

Where an item is located in space; parietal/frontal lobes

7

What eye movement is impacted by the dorsal stream?

Visually-guided control of saccades

8

Dominant (L) parietal lobe...

Mediates attention to contralateral (R) hemi-space

9

Non-dominant (R) parietal lobe...

Mediates attention to bilateral hemi-space

10

So, if you damage the non-dominant parietal (R) lobe, you can get...Why?

(L) Hemi-neglect; because the left hemi-space ONLY FF

11

What pathway answers what question? Where does it project?

Identifies objects; temporal lobe

12

Fusiform gyrus does what?

Recognizes faces

13

Visual agnosia

Inability to visually recognize an object

14

Action selection means...what brain region.

Which behaviors will be expressed and which won't be, what is the plan?; DL/VLPFC

15

Suppression of action brain region

Orbital frontal cortex

16

Action itself brain region. This region has what subdivisions?

Medial PFC; cognitive and affective subdivions

17

What is the cingulum and what does it do?

Fiber bundle; learns to correct mistakes, reinforces behaviors that reduce pain

18

Describe the cingulum pain pathway...

Pain information is mapped onto cingulate gyrus, transmitted via cingulum to various places (i.e. temporal lobe: hippocmapus)

19

Hippocampal formation projects where via what

Mammillay bodies, septal nuclei, ventral striatum; fornix

20

Mammillary bodies project...

To the thalamus

21

The cingulum also sends a projection to this structure to mediate what pain-related emotion?

Amygdala; fear

22

Describe the mesocortical pathway projections and what it is responsible for?

VTA to DLPFC, VMPFC, cingulate, olfactory bulbs; cognition/motivation/emotional responses pathway

23

# Layers: Archicortex and example

3 (hippocampus)

24

# Layers: Paleocortex

3-5 (transitional cortex)

25

# Layers: Neocortex

6 (mammals only)

26

Where do we find pyramidal cells in neocortex?

All layers, but mainly 3 and 5

27

What are the smaller cells of the neocortex? What layers?

Granular cells; all layers, but mainly 2 and 4

28

Name the layers

1 Molecular, 2 outer granular, 3 outer pyramidal, 4 inner granular, 5 inner pyramidal, 6 polymorphic

29

Dendritic spines receive what kind of input? Whats an important projection to neocortex via these spine interactions?

Excitatoy (glutamatergic); thalamocortical interactions

30

Where is the UMN deficit in ALS? AD?

Large pyramidal cells of Layer V (i.e. motor deficits); Widespread loss of pyramidal cells (cognitive dysfunction)

31

Non-pyramidal cells use what NT. What's an associated disease?

GABA; epilepsy

32

Homotypical cortex

Equal sized layers of cortex (association)

33

Sensory cortex: cell type and other name

Predominance of granular cells; Koniocotex

34

Motor cortex: cell type and other name

Predominance of pyramidal cells; Agranular cortex

35

Differences in cortical thickness depends on...

Its function! Example: Layer III of Association > Layer III of Occipital (less pyramidal cells)

36

If a cortical region has more pyramidal cells it's going to be thicker/less thick

Thicker

37

Inputs to neocortex (4)

Neocortex, allocortex, thalamus, other subcortical nuclei (brainstem, etc)

38

Intrinsic (cortical) inputs to these layers

I, II, III

39

Extrinsic inputs to these layers

III, IV

40

As an example, the LGN projects to which layer (broadly)?

IV

41

Layer IV projects where...then where...then where...

III; V; outputs to association areas

42

What are the short arcuate bundles? Also called?

WM connecting close regions of cortex; U fibers

43

Uncinate fasiculus connects

Interconnects anterior frontal lobe (OFC) with anterior temporal lobe (hippocampus, amygdala)

44

Superior longitudinal fasiculus connects; what does the arcuate fasiculus connect?

Frontal, partietal, and occipital lobe; Wernicke's and Broca's territory

45

Inferior longitudinal fasiculus

Occipital and temporal lobe

46

Cingulum is located...

Internally within the cingulate gyrus

47

Forceps major interconnects...Function?

Occipital poles; joins visual fields

48

Forceps minor interconnects...

Frontal lobes

49

Anterior commissure interconnects...

Temporal lobes and amygdala

50

What are projections from the ACh and monoamine nuclei like?

They blanket the cortex, not precise like other inputs

51

Horizontal: Plexus of Exner connects and layer

Cortex regions to one another; Layer I (cortico-cortico connections tend to be superficial)

52

Horizontal: Kaes-Bechterew connects and layer

Mediates inputs from thalamus that are not from specific sensory relay nuclei; Layer III

53

Horizontal: Outer stripes of Baillarger

Carries specific thalamic nuclei radiations; Layer IV

54

Horizontal: Inner stripes of Baillarger

Carries outputs; Layer V

55

Outputs from neocortex (5)

1. Cortex (neo and allo), 2. Thalamic, 3. Basal ganglia, 4. Brainstem structures nuclei, 5. Spinal cord

56

Layers III and superficial IV project to...

Cortex

57

Layer V projects to...

Non-thalamic, subcortical areas

58

Superficial VI projects to...

Thalamic sensory relay nuclei

59

Deep VI projects to...

Non-specific thalamic

60

Cortex is organized vertically into...scaffolding?

Radial columns; pyramidal cells

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