Lecture 43: Addiction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 43: Addiction Deck (32):
1

About what portion of risk for addiction is genetic?

50%

2

Men are more likely to use which two drugs? What are women likely to use?

Marijuana and alcohol; nonmedical use of prescription drug

3

How are women vulnerable to drugs of abuse? Mediated by...

Women exhibit faster onset of SUDs and medical consequences; mediated by gonadal steroids

4

Three cardinal features of drug addiction (according to Dr. Nestler)

Loss of control over use, compulsive seeking/taking despite consequences, relapse even for years later

5

What does the DSM definition for substance use disorder include?

Physical tolerance and withdrawal

6

According to Dr. Nester, addiction is caused by drug-induced changes in (2)

Reward or reinforcement

7

Animal models of addiction have demonstrated these paradigms (4)

Conditioned place preference, drug self-administration (including overdose), relapse (cue/stress), intra-cranial self-stimulation

8

Most important SUD NT projection in brain

VTA --> NAc (mesolimbic)

9

Describe the effects of reward on VTA DA neurons: what activates them (3)? What inhibits them (1)?

Reward, expectation, and (especially) unexpected reward activates neurons; absence of expected reward inhibits neurons

10

T/F: Drugs of abuse activate same brain reward regions as natural rewards, only not as well

False! Drugs of abuse do it better

11

Three events caused by drug addiction

1. Reduce response to natural rewards; 2. Sensitive response to drugs of abuse and cues; 3. Impaired cortical control over reward pathway

12

What is the the impaired cortical control over reward pathway called? What brain region is increased?

Hypofrontality; limbic regions

13

Stimulants act on what brain system via which set of proteins?

Monoamine system; monoamine transporter

14

Cocaine blocks...

Monoamine reuptake

15

Amphetamines increase...

Monoamine release

16

Stimulants cause (5)

Euphoria, increased arousal, suppression of fatigue, increased confidence, appetite suppression

17

Chronic use of stimulants cause tolerance to what and sensitization to what?

Tolerance: euphoria, tachycardia; sensitization: paranoia, irritability

18

Which two stimulants are toxic to neurons?

Methamphetamine and Ecstacy

19

Nicotine acts at...and causes (5)

nAChR; altertness, muscle relaxation, analgesia, nausea, psychomotor activation

20

PCP and ketamine do what to which receptor? Producing what state at high doses?

Non-competitive antagonists of NMDA glutamate receptor; a state of psychosis

21

What is unique about alcohol's binding affinity?

Does not have a high affinity target in the brain

22

Anxiolytic effects of alcohol: NT/receptor

GABA

23

Dissociative, psychotogenic effects of alcohol: channel

NMDA

24

Coma, death effects of alcohol: channel

VG channels (and other)

25

Cannabinoids act how on what receptor?

Agonists at CB1 receptor

26

Three deleterious effects of long-term alcohol use

Apathy, addiction, schizophrenia

27

Drugs of abuse converge on what type of neuron where?

GABA neurons of the nucleus accumbens

28

T/F: Drugs of abuse can alter gene expression

True!

29

Replacement therapy

Long-acting drug agonist (e.g. methadone)

30

Classic antagonist therapy example. What's the problem with these treatments?

Naltrexone for opiate addiction; cause negative emotional responses (feel crappy)

31

Most effective treatment for SUD?

Behavioral/group therapies

32

After about a year, relapse risk is finally...

>50%

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