Flashcards in Lecture 57: Cognition Deck (41):
Orbitofrontal cortex is substrate for...fMRI task that looks at this
Inhibitory control; No-Go
Akinetic mutism is considered a failure of...Dysfunction? Causes
Go; medial frontal lobe (ACC); stroke of ACA, tumor, trauma, frontotemporal degeneration
Parkinson's Disease is fundamentally a problem with what behavior? Name two psych disorders in that can also be seen as being a problem with this.
Approach/withdrawal; bipolar disorder and addiction
What determines hemispheric dominance?
R-handers have what proportion of L-hemi language dominance? L-handers?
98%; 60% w/ bilateral representation
Three networks of attention
Alerting, orienting, executing network
Describe executing network
Attention that is formed by top-down search driven by internal processes
Wernicke's area description
Recognize incoming auditory stimuli as having linguistic value and lexicon
Transcortical sensory (one word)
Primary output for expressive language
Transcortical motor (one word)
Where is repetition?
Non-fluent speech: effortful/frustrated, telegraphic
Transcortical motor aphasia
Expressive dysphasia: impaired fluency c/ preserved comprehension and repetition
Receptive dysphasia: impaired comprehension w/ syntatically correct but semantically/lexically-empty
Transcortical sensory aphasia
Receptive dysphasia: impaired comprehension w/ preserved fluency and repetition
Impaired repetition alone (preserved fluency and comprehension)
Which aphasia includes parapahasic errors and neologisms?
Non-dominant "Wernicke" homologue
Receptive prosody (emotional valence)
Non-dominant "Broca" homologue
Expressive prosody (deliver emotional layer)
Alexia w/out agraphia (what kind of syndrome, cause, description)
Disconnection syndrome; PCA territory stroke: disconnection visual processing from language centers on other size (image comes into R visual field but then R must send info to L for language appreciation)
Echoic memory facilitates...
Facilitates registration (
Which one, STM or working memory requires active on-line maintenance? What three skills are involved? Time course?
Working memory (attention, task control, STM); seconds - minutes
Two divisions of explicit/declarative memory
Semantic and episodic
Three divisions of implicit memory
Procedural, classical conditioning, emotional
Two types of memory dysfunction and subtypes. Most common scenario?
Anterograde (no new memories) and retrograde (temporal gradient and no temporal gradient); AD: temporal gradient = distant > recent (new are most delicate)
Capgras Syndrome; clinical presentation. Where is the "cut"
Rare syndrome, memory-emotion disconnection syndrome; believes his loved ones are imposters; connecting temporal lobe ("what" pathway) to amygdala
3 perceptual deficits and names/areas of orders
Complete unilateral appreception (sensory field cut); Attentional asymmetry (non-dominant parietal lobe = neglect); Asymmetry of perception of simultaneously presented stimuli (extinction)
One quick way to evaluate neglect
Anosgnosia (def) and two syndromes. Describe the lesion of the second syndrome.
Disturbance of deficit awareness; hemi-body neglect and Anton's syndrome (cortical blindness + unawareness due to occipital and parietal association area knock-out)
Dyspraxia, praxicon (def)
Inability to preform a previously learned motor task; motor analogue of lexicon = temporo-spatial representation of learned skilled movements
Where is the praxicon
Dominant parietal lobe
Praxicon --> SMA --> CC --> L/R motor strop --> L/R cortico-spinal system
Two apraxias seen in the clinic
Constructional apraxia, dressing apraxia
Medial PFC/AC =
Orbito-frontal cortex =
How to go
Abulic-Akinetic syndrome area
Disinhibition syndrome area
Dsyexecutive syndrome area