Lecture 57: Cognition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 57: Cognition Deck (41):
1

Orbitofrontal cortex is substrate for...fMRI task that looks at this

Inhibitory control; No-Go

2

Akinetic mutism is considered a failure of...Dysfunction? Causes

Go; medial frontal lobe (ACC); stroke of ACA, tumor, trauma, frontotemporal degeneration

3

Parkinson's Disease is fundamentally a problem with what behavior? Name two psych disorders in that can also be seen as being a problem with this.

Approach/withdrawal; bipolar disorder and addiction

4

What determines hemispheric dominance?

Language lateralization

5

R-handers have what proportion of L-hemi language dominance? L-handers?

98%; 60% w/ bilateral representation

6

Three networks of attention

Alerting, orienting, executing network

7

Describe executing network

Attention that is formed by top-down search driven by internal processes

8

Wernicke's area description

Recognize incoming auditory stimuli as having linguistic value and lexicon

9

Transcortical sensory (one word)

Comprehension

10

Broca's area

Primary output for expressive language

11

Transcortical motor (one word)

Expression

12

Where is repetition?

Arcuate fasciculus

13

Broca's aphasia

Non-fluent speech: effortful/frustrated, telegraphic

14

Transcortical motor aphasia

Expressive dysphasia: impaired fluency c/ preserved comprehension and repetition

15

Wernicke's aphasia

Receptive dysphasia: impaired comprehension w/ syntatically correct but semantically/lexically-empty

16

Transcortical sensory aphasia

Receptive dysphasia: impaired comprehension w/ preserved fluency and repetition

17

Conduction aphasia

Impaired repetition alone (preserved fluency and comprehension)

18

Which aphasia includes parapahasic errors and neologisms?

Wernicke's aphasia

19

Non-dominant "Wernicke" homologue

Receptive prosody (emotional valence)

20

Non-dominant "Broca" homologue

Expressive prosody (deliver emotional layer)

21

Alexia w/out agraphia (what kind of syndrome, cause, description)

Disconnection syndrome; PCA territory stroke: disconnection visual processing from language centers on other size (image comes into R visual field but then R must send info to L for language appreciation)

22

Echoic memory facilitates...

Facilitates registration (

23

Which one, STM or working memory requires active on-line maintenance? What three skills are involved? Time course?

Working memory (attention, task control, STM); seconds - minutes

24

Two divisions of explicit/declarative memory

Semantic and episodic

25

Three divisions of implicit memory

Procedural, classical conditioning, emotional

26

Two types of memory dysfunction and subtypes. Most common scenario?

Anterograde (no new memories) and retrograde (temporal gradient and no temporal gradient); AD: temporal gradient = distant > recent (new are most delicate)

27

Capgras Syndrome; clinical presentation. Where is the "cut"

Rare syndrome, memory-emotion disconnection syndrome; believes his loved ones are imposters; connecting temporal lobe ("what" pathway) to amygdala

28

3 perceptual deficits and names/areas of orders

Complete unilateral appreception (sensory field cut); Attentional asymmetry (non-dominant parietal lobe = neglect); Asymmetry of perception of simultaneously presented stimuli (extinction)

29

One quick way to evaluate neglect

Line bisection

30

Anosgnosia (def) and two syndromes. Describe the lesion of the second syndrome.

Disturbance of deficit awareness; hemi-body neglect and Anton's syndrome (cortical blindness + unawareness due to occipital and parietal association area knock-out)

31

Dyspraxia, praxicon (def)

Inability to preform a previously learned motor task; motor analogue of lexicon = temporo-spatial representation of learned skilled movements

32

Where is the praxicon

Dominant parietal lobe

33

Praxis neuroanatomy

Praxicon --> SMA --> CC --> L/R motor strop --> L/R cortico-spinal system

34

Two apraxias seen in the clinic

Constructional apraxia, dressing apraxia

35

Medial PFC/AC =

Go

36

Orbito-frontal cortex =

No-go

37

V/D-LPFC =

How to go

38

Abulic-Akinetic syndrome area

mPFC

39

Disinhibition syndrome area

OFC

40

Dsyexecutive syndrome area

DLPFC

41

"Scared to death" syndrome involves which region and bodily response

Stimulus evokes insula activation --> disrupts HR

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