Lecture 71: CNS Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 71: CNS Infections Deck (26):
1

Acute bacteria meningitis is a...presents originally as?

Medical emergency; a few days of headache, malaise, photosensitivity

2

Meningitis neck stiffness on...

Flexion (not lateral rotation)

3

CSF in meningitis

Elevated opening pressure, low glucose (0.6 of peripheral glucose), elevated protein, elevated WBC w/ PMNs

4

Adults get bacterial meningitis from (3)

Adults (

5

Older adults get bacterial meningitis from (3)

S. pneumoniae, L. monocytogenes, gram (-) rods

6

Worse bacterial meningitis: name, bacteria, transmission, exposure prophylaxis, sign

Meningococcal meningitis caused by Neisseria; close contact; rifampin; petechial rash

7

What is a feared complication of meningococcal meningitis?

Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome due to bleeding into adrenal gland --> adrenal failure, hypotension

8

Neonates get bacterial meningitis from (4)

Group B strep, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, gram (-) rods

9

Children get bacterial meningitis from (3)

S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae type B

10

Children and adults often get viral meningitsi from...

Enteroviruses

11

How does neonatal meningitis presentation differ?

Signs of meningeal irritation might be absence. Look for bulging fontanelles and fever

12

Describe tuberculous meningitis

Very purulent over base of brain (CN symptoms, CNS flow entrapment)

13

Describe tuberculoma

Growth of tubercles, which enlarge within the CNS parenchyma or remain encapsulated within the meninges,

14

CSF with tuberculous meningitis

High opening pressure, low glucose, very high protein, mixed cell types

15

Neurosyphilis can cause...discuss CSF

CN lesions, meningitis, gummas, "general paresis of the insane"; positive VDRL in spinal fluid = syphilis but neg DOES NOT rule out, negative CSF FTA rules out neurosyphilis

16

In encephalitis, you're more likely to have what? Less likely to have what?

Altered consciousness; headache

17

Encephalitis is more likely bacterial/viral

Viral

18

CSF fugal findings

Increased opening pressure, decreased glucose, increased proteins, increased lymphocytes (difficult to tell apart from viral meningitis)

19

CSF fungal infections are usually associated with...

Immunocompromise

20

Some fungal infections that can infect brain

Apergillosis, mucormycosis (ketoacidosis w/ red swollen eyes), cryptococcus neoformans, candidiasis

21

Common causes of encephalitis (3)

Enteroviruses (autumn), HSV, arbovirus (summer)

22

Acute viral encephalitis (4) and chronic (2)

Arbovirus, herpes encephalitis, poliomyelitis, rabies; HIV and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (measles)

23

Characteristic findings of HSV encephalitis? Morbidity/mortality? Diagnosis (3)?

Hemorrhagic lesions of temporal lobes; high morbidity/mortality; PCR for HSV virus, RBCs in CSF, temporal lobe spikes on EEG

24

Where do you lose motor neurons in polio?

Anterior horns

25

What is the histological sign of Rabies?

Negri bodies (eiosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions)

26

How to diagnose subacute scerlosing panencephalitis?

Measles IgG antibody in CSF

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