Lecture 80: Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 80: Personality Deck (59):
1

Temperament

Biologically based behavioral and emotional tendencies; present in early life and stage

2

Personality

Temperament PLUS the world; characteristic way one thinks, feels, behaves

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Components of neural network model

Behavioral approach and inhibition system

4

4 types of kids from classic study of infant temperament

Easy, difficult, slow to warm (shy, withdrawal from novel stimuli), unable to classify

5

Eysenck factors in adult personality

Extravertism/introversion + low/high neuroticism --> 4 types of personalities

6

Infant behavioral inhibition associated with...

Inhibition (maybe event anxiety) throughout life

7

Five factor model

Openness vs close-mindedness; conscientiousness vs negligence; extraversion vs introversion; agreeableness vs antagonism; neuroticism vs emotional stability

8

The five factor model is...

Reliable, reproducible, cross-cultural, and predictable of health outcomes

9

Extraversion (def and association)

Sociable, expressive; positive emotions

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Neuroticism (def and association)

Anxious, self-conscious, irritabile; negative emotions and vulnerability to psychopathology

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Conscientiousness (def and association)

Responsible, persistent, thinking before acting; inhibit impulses to follow rules --> career success and longer life

12

Agreeableness (def and association)

Kind, affectionate, cooperative; understanding others' emotions, positive relationships

13

Openness to experience (def and association)

Imaginative, curious, eager; process abstract/uncertainty, intelligence

14

T/F: Is personality stable over time?

Somewhat true: temperament tends to be stable will personality might change

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What could cause innate personality traits to appear?

Stress, new situations

16

T/F: Strong genetic influences on temperament and personality

True

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The most important contributor to variations in personality may be...

A person’s unique “non-shared” environment

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What is a good example of gene x environment interaction?

Parent-child interaction: children with high negative emotionality ("difficult") causes in less parent involvement, resulting in greater vulnerability when children encounter stress

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Neuroticism predicts encountering...and vice versa? Holds even when...

Negative events; extraversion predicts positive events; holds for subjective reports and objective measures corrected for reporting bias

20

Fetal programming hypothesis

Fetus adjusts phenotype on basis of maternal nutritional & hormonal cues about the outside world, as a means of optimally adapting to the (anticipated) conditions of the postnatal environment

21

Risk factors for psychiatric disorders (4)

High neuroticism; low conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion

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Harm avoidance is associated with...

Mood/anxiety disorders

23

What kids of personality traits are related to poor health outcomes? (4)

Pessimistic explanatory style (self-blame), less agreeable/conscientiousness, more neuroticism

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What kids of personality traits are related to good health outcomes? (7)

Easy going, self-regulating, flexible, positive emotionality, sociable, high attention focusing on tasks, OPTIMISM

25

Optimistic patients have a larger response to...

Placebos!

26

How to become more optimistic?

Reframing: 2 weeks of daily 5-min sessions of imagining one’s best possible self can temporarily increase optimism

27

Personality disorder (def)

Enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture

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Personality disorder manifests in these four domains...

Cognition, affectivity, interpersonal functioning, impulse control

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Personality disorder must be...(3)

Inflexible and pervasive; causing clinically significant distress/impairment

30

A personality develops fully during what life stage? Compare to temperament

Early adulthood; temperament is earlier

31

What is a primary reason for the breakdown between Axis I and II

Increasingly understood that all psychiatry disorders are the result of a gene by environment interaction (e.g. Axis I can be environment, Axis II can be genes)

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Cluster A

Odd/eccentric (psychotic): paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal

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Cluster B

Dramatic, emotional, erratic ("bad" or manic): antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic

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Cluster C

Anxious, fearful (anxiety): avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive

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Paranoid

Irrational suspicions/mistrust

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Schizoid

Lack of interest in social relationships

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Schizotypal

Characterized by odd behavior/thinking (on schizophrenia spectrum)

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Antisocial

Disregard for the law, rights of others

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Borderline

Extreme "black and white" thinking, instable in relationships, self-harm and impulsivity

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Histrionic

Attention-seeking, seductive, exaggerated emotions

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Narcissistic

Grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy

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Avoidant

Social inhibition/avoidance

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Dependent

Psychological dependence on others

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Obsessive-compulsive

Conformity to rules, moral codes, excessive oderliness

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Prevalence of PDs by cluster (%); total (%)

A and C ~6%, B 1.5%; 9%

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% of those diagnosed w/ a PD are female...

75%

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Describe schizotypal PD

Discomfort/reduced capacity for close relationships AND cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior

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Schizotypal PD often seeks treatment for...How is it similar to schizophrenia? Treatment?

Anxiety, depression; some of the cognitive ("hypofrontality") problems as schizophrenia; if they are very distressed, they could be treated w/ low doses of antipsychotics

49

Antisocial PD is marked by a lack of? More likely to die from...Treatment? Hypoactive?

Remorse; violent means; no good treatment; amygdala

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Instability in Borderline PD (3 broad realms)

Emotional/affective, behavioral, interpersonal

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Describe Borderline PD (4)

Avoid abandonment, unstable interpersonal relationships, self-damaging impulsiveness, suicidal tendencies

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A personal with Borderline PD may complain of...

Chronic feelings of emptiness

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% gender in Borderline PD. Some reasons why (2)?

75%; sampling bias/higher rates of sexual trauma?

54

Describe the aging borderline patient and treatment

Improves with age (fewer suicides, better relationships); psychotherapy (DBT)

55

What brain region might be hyperactive in borderline? What about hypoactivity? What about general "dysfunction"?

Amygdala; frontal regions; insula

56

Is childhood trauma necessary and/or sufficient for Borderline PD?

NO: not all w/ trauma become borderline and not all borderlines have trauma

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Is there a genetic factor for Borderline PD?

Yes: might just inherit personality types, not the whole disorder; genes x env't very important

58

When treating a borderline patient, it's important to...Treatment should focus on...Meds (3 categories)?

Manage your own countertransference; self-destructive behaviors and improving emotional regulation; serotonergic for impulsivity, antipsychotics if symptoms exist, mood stabilizers for emotional lability

59

Describe Avoidant PD (3) and how it is different from schizoid or schizotypal?

Feelings of inadequacy; subjective sense of being “socially inept;” sensitive to criticism; unlike schizoid/schizotypal --> desire affection and acceptance

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