Lecture 15: Somatosensory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 15: Somatosensory Deck (37):
1

Do cells in the DRG have dendrites? Peripheral process becomes...Centrally directed process becomes...

No; spinal nerve; dorsal root

2

2 submodalities

Touch, pressure, vibration & position and movement; pain and temperature

3

Accessory structures for touch, pressure, vibration (4)

Meissner (light pressure, sensitive), Pacinian (pick up high frequency vibration, sensitive) and Ruffin's corpuscles (pressure), Merkel's disks

4

Accessory structures for position and movement

Muscle spindle (within skeletal muscle, encodes length) and Golgi tendon organ (encodes tension/stretch at tendon junction)

5

Pain and temperature use...

Free nerve endings (no myelin); will encode some crude touch

6

Four principles of encoding

1. Each neuron encodes one type of stimulus; 2. Increase in intensity w/ increase in frequency of APs and eventual increase in # axons recruited; 3. Variations in adaption (slowly vs rapidly adapting --> fires AP at onset and offset of stimulus); 4. Receptive fields and perception acuity

7

About how much overlap in dermatome map vs sensor receptive fields. Same for pain?

50%; no, pain is less overlapped

8

Order the muscle axons. Which is totally unmyelinated?

Group 1a (primary muscle spindle) --> 1b (Golgi tendon organ) --> II (secondary muscle spindle) --> III and IV (pain and temperature); Group IV

9

Order the cutaneous axons. Which is totally unmyelinated?

AB (touch, pressure) --> Ad and C (pain, temperature, crude touch); C

10

What are the two major ascending systems and what do they carry?

1. DC-ML (mechanosensation; touch, pressure, vibration = AB; position and movement = Group I, II); 2. Spinothalamic (anterolateral) system (pain and temperature, crude touch = Ad, C; Group III, IV)

11

F. gracilis where? F. cuneatus where? Significance. What's above the facilicus? What happens here? What's the new tract? Where does it travel?

All levels; T6 and above; axons entering above T6 travel on f. cuneatus; the nucleus cuneatus/gracilis; SYNAPSE and then the "great sensory decussation" (arcuate fibers); medial leminscus; thalamus

12

Do all neurons ascend?

No! Some synapse at the level of the spinal cord (reflexes, cerebellum)

13

What size of fibers take the lateral route?

Smaller fibers

14

Lissaurer's tract and assoicated

Ipsilateral 2-5 segments of bifurcated tract in spinal cord (from Spinothalamic neurons) where synapsing b/t axons and dorsal horn neurons occurs

15

Where is the first synapse in the Spinothalamic tract? Then what?

In the spinal cord; secondary or tertiary neuron crosses the ventral white commissure to form lateral spinothalamic tract

16

What are the three distinctions?

1. First synapse; 2. Location of decussation

17

Brown-Sequard Syndrome

Hemi-section of spinal cord. Above lesion: intact; Below lesion: DC-ML on ipsilateral side; Spinothalamic on contralateral side

18

Syringomyelia can cause...

Bilateral, segmental loss of pain and temperature just at the level of the lesion

19

Somatotropic organization of spinal cord, medulla, pons, midbrain

Spinal cord (medial --> lateral) organized leg, lower trunk, upper trunk, neck; Mid-medulla (dorsal --> ventral) N, A, T, L; Pons (medial --> lateral) F, N, A, T, L; Midbrain (ventral --> dorsal) L, T, A, N, F

20

Second order axons from principal sensory nucleus do what?

Decussate and then join medial lemniscus via trigeminal thalamic tract

21

Primary neurons headed to the spinal nucleus of V do what? Then what?

Travel downward via spinal tract of V; decussate and join SPINOTHALAMIC tract

22

Mesencephalic nucleus recieves what kind of information? Where are the primary cell bodies? What happens?

Proprioception (Group I, II); within mesencephalic nucleus; Secondary process (still primary cell) sends projections to the motor nucleus of V (jaw jerk reflex)

23

Trigeminal: medullary lesion

Ipsilateral pain and temperature deficits (mostly)

24

Trigeminal: pontine lesion

Ipsilateral touch, pressure, proprioception (muscles of mastication); damage to Vm motorneurons (areflexia); deficits in pain and temperature (ipsilateral if V root affected, contralateral if broad lesion affecting spinothalamic)

25

Trigeminal: above brainstem lesion

All sensory modalities contralateral; motor responses (Vm) not affected because bilaterally innervated

26

Ventral posterior lateral (VPL)

Receives input coming from dorsal column nuclei (medial lemniscal axons)

27

Ventral posterior medial (VPM)

Receives input coming from Principal trigeminal nucleus (face)

28

Somatotropic orgaization of DC-ML system in thalamus

Lateral --> medial: L T A N F (with lips, fingers, toes down)

29

VPL and VPM cell bodies are ipsi or contralateral?

CONTRALATERAL

30

T/F: Do we find proportional or disproportional representations of sensation in the VPL/VPM nuclei?

Disproportional

31

Is place/submodality retained at the level of the thalamus?

Yes for DC-ML but NOT for Spinothalamic (large, promiscuous receptive fields)

32

Is the cortex ipsi or contralateral? How about proportional representation? How is the body arranged?

Contral; homunculus; (dorsal --> ventral) L T A F

33

What structure do the axons from the VPM/VPL thalamus project through?

Internal capsule

34

What are the four separate functional areas of S1? Information.

3a, 3b, 1, 2; proprioception (Group I, II) to 3a and 2; cutaneous (AB) to 3b and 1; pain and temperature to ALL fields of S1

35

Discuss S1 lesions

3b: all tactile cutaneous information; 1/2: partial deficit in discrimination of texture, size, shape; 3a/2: proprioceptive

36

Cortex structure relationship to leminscal/spinothalamic projections

Layer IV: lemniscal; Layer I: spinothalamic

37

What information does S2 get? What is special/different about S2? What does destruction lead to?

Branched axons from thalamic relay neurons headed toward S1; only single representation of information; (anterior --> posterior) E A T L; representation is BILATERAL via fiber tracts from the CC; loss of interhemispheric transfer of info and permanent impairment in object discrimination on basis of size, texture

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