Lectures 84, 85: Childhood and ADHD/Autism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lectures 84, 85: Childhood and ADHD/Autism Deck (63):
1

Symptom domains of ASD (2)

Social/communication deficits, restricted/repetitive behaviors

2

Social/communication deficits includes...

Social/emotional reciprocity; non verbal communication; maintaining/developing relationships

3

Restricted, repetitive behaviors includes...

Stereotyped speech; routines; fixated interest; sensory input hyper/hyporeactivity

4

T/F: Seizures can be seen in ASD?

True!

5

Besides social-communication deficits and restricted/repetitive behaviors, what else is required for an autism diagnosis?

Symptoms must be present in early childhood and limit/impair everyday functioning

6

Which is more important/necessary for autism diagnosis: social-communication deficits or restricted/repetitive behaviors?

Social-communication deficits (requires 3 out of 3 symptoms)

7

How early can an autism diagnosis be made? Advantage?

12 - 18 months; early intervention = better outcome

8

What is the most important "risk alert" for ASD?

Joint attention: child wants to pay attention to the same thing that you're paying attention to

9

What are the behaviors included in joint attention? (3)

Pointing (look at this!), bringing and showing, responding to adult point

10

Are the rates of autism rising? (3 reasons)

Unlikely: there are broadened diagnostic criteria, younger age of diagnosis, improved sensitivity

11

Genes or environment more important for development of autism? (heritability %)

Genes! 90%, more than really any other psychiatric conidtion

12

Environmental factors and autism? (2 examples)

Parental age, toxins

13

Are there any single genes that cause autism?

Yes: very rare variants accounting for

14

Besides rare genetic mutations, what other genetic model can account for autism?

Large number of common genetic variations (SNPs)

15

Genes related to ASD tend to impact...

Glutamate synapse (including post synaptic response)

16

Potential novel target for ASD based on etiology?

IGF

17

Symptom buckets for ADHD (2). How many symptoms of each? Relation to subtypes (3)?

Inattention, hyperactive/impulsive; 6; predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive, combined

18

What symptoms of ADHD often persist with age? Which ones improve?

Cognitive/executive problems; hyperactivity

19

Neurobiology of ADHD (NE and DA)

NE: enhances relevant signals in prefrontal region; DA suppresses irrelevant signal in prefrontal region

20

Heritability of ADHD (%)

75%

21

One structural and one functional difference in ADHD

Smaller prefrontal cortex volume; less efficient processing via decreased activity in ACC

22

Two reasons to treat ADHD

Minimize core symptoms; alter course of other disorders

23

Are treatments for ADHD effective?

Yes!

24

Four simple environmental modifications for ADHD

1. Structure environment; 2. Simplify communication; 3. Use external aids/reminders; 4. Pyschosocial interventions (social skill training)

25

How are methylphenidate and amphetamine similar and different?

Methylphenidate and amphetamine block reuptake, amphetamine also blocks uptake into vesicles and DA release

26

Newborn: motor

Basic reflexes (moro, rooting plamar, Babinksi), some head lifting

27

Newborn: social

Temperament apparent at birth

28

Newborn: verbal/cognitive

Crying, limited response to voice

29

6 months: motor

Primitive reflexes diminish (Moro, rooting and palmar gone); Posture: lifts head, rolls, sits; Picks/passes toys

30

6 months: social

Smiles, stranger danger

31

6 moths: verbal/cognitive

Orients to voice, babbles, some memory improvement

32

1 year: motor

Walking, pointing

33

1 year: social

Separation anxiety, can follow commands

34

1 year: verbal/cognitive

Mama, dada; object permanence

35

2 years: motor

Run, climb stairs, copy a line

36

2 years: social

Terrible twos: says "no", ambivalence, parallel play

37

2 years: verbal/cognitive

200 words, 2 word sentences

38

3 years: motor

Ride a tricycle, copy a circle, toilet trained

39

3 years: social

Can be away from caregiver comfortably, gender developed

40

3 years: verbal/cognitive

1000 words, complete sentences

41

Latency: motor

Moves and functions as an adult

42

Latency: social

Sexual preference, learning what they are good at, more empathy

43

Latency: verbal/cognitive

Learn to write, better at attention and self-regulation, concrete (logical) thought begins

44

Adolescence: motor

No motor development, but growth during puberty

45

Adolescence: social

Identity determination; increase in risk taking behavior

46

Adolescence: verbal/cognitive

Ability to abstract and see a problem from other people's points of view

47

Piaget's Stages (4)

Sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operations, formal operations

48

Sensorimotor stage

0-2; no language/symbols; "intelligence" means sensory exploration of env't
and learning how to manipulate body

49

Pre-operational stage

3-6; language without logic, magical thinking; still egocentric

50

Concrete operations

7-12; logical thought

51

Formal operations

13+; logic + abstract thought

52

Erikson: conflict of infancy

Trust vs mistrust

53

Erikson: conflict of toddlers

Autonomy vs shame and doubt: parents must let kids explore

54

Erikson: conflict of preschool

Initiative vs guilt: doing more elaborate tings involve planning, guilt if it doesn't go well

55

Erikson: conflict of school age

Industry vs inferiority: preoccupied wit what they are good at

56

Erikson: conflict of adolescence

Identity vs role confusion: who am I?

57

Erikson: conflict of young adult hood

Intimacy vs isolation: who am I going to be with?

58

Erikson: conflict of middle age

Generativity vs stagnation: am I being productive?

59

Erikson: conflict of old age

Integrity vs despair: do I feel good about my accomplishments?

60

Freud's psychosexual stages (3) and basic description

Oral, anal, genital; development in terms of which body part provides the most pleasure at each age

61

Oral stage

0-1; babies suck on everything

62

Anal stage

1-3; preoccupied with bathroom, aware of
bowel control; focus on controlling things (but can't accomplish full toilet training until age 3)

63

Genital stage

3-5; interest in babies, opposite sex, playing with genitals

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