Lectures 62-63: Cerebrovascular Disease Flashcards Preview

Brain and Behavior > Lectures 62-63: Cerebrovascular Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lectures 62-63: Cerebrovascular Disease Deck (63):
1

Thromboembolus is often...why? Particularly what territory?

Hemorrhagic --> when the clot recedes, blood flows into damaged tissue; carotid

2

Thrombosis is different from thromboembolus how? Particularly in what territory?

Local (clot forms over local plaque); posterior circulation

3

Acute infarct: histological appearance; what it leads to that is dangerous; timeline for peak edema

Pallor, edema, early PMNs; can lead to swelling and herniation; 24 - 48 hours

4

Subacute infarct: cellular and tissue response; timeline

Macrophage infiltration, vascular proliferation; demarcation, organization, contraction; organization happens over days - months

5

Chronic/remote infarct forms what and this leads to what (proper name)

Cystic cavity and neural (Wallerian) degeneration

6

1 cm cubic infarct takes...to reabsorb

3 months to reabsorb

7

Axonal swelling manifests largely in what phase?

Subacute

8

What is a paradoxical finding sometime present in stroke?

Enlargement of LV due to blocked foramen, contributes to mass effect

9

Duret hemorrhage and outcome

Process of hemorrhage leading to small infarcts or bleeds in midline brainstem region due to downward displacement of brainstem; outcome generally fatal

10

Important sign of uncal herniation

Blown pupil

11

Subpial sparing is present in what kind of stroke? Differentiates what?

Small amount of spared tissue near pia present in a cerebral stroke; differentiates stroke from trauma

12

Most common causes of cerebral and meningeal hemorrhage (4)

Trauma, vascular malformation (berry aneurysm, malformation), blood dyscrasia, arterial changes (hypertension and amyloid angiopathy)

13

Blood dyscrasia is often seen in what setting and include what thing?

Hospital --> coagulation problem

14

Arterial changes are chronic/acute

Chronic

15

Vascular lipohyalinosis (def)

Weakened arterial wall due to long-term hypertension

16

Charcot Bouchard aneurysm (def). Most common location?

Small aneurysms that arise due to vascular lipohyalinosis; lenticulostriate vessels of basal ganglia

17

~70% of HT-related hemorrhages are in...

Deep gray matter of cerebral hemispheres

18

Congophilic angiopathy (def)

Abnormal deposition of amyloid in cortical/leptomeningeal arterioles

19

Where do we find congophilic angiopathy hemorrhages? What age?

"Lobar" hemorrhages = peripheral cerebral regions; older adults

20

Two complications of cerebral hemorrhage

1. Rupture into ventricular system; 2. Vasopasm leading to secondary infarction

21

If neither complication happens, what is the resolution of a cerebral hemorrhage? This is unlike...

Slit-like (small) cavity; unlike an infarct, which leads to cystic cavities

22

Classifications of global brain hypoxia

Stagnant/hypoperfusion (reduced or no flow) or hypoxic/anoxic (reduced or no O2, such as due to CO poisoning)

23

Global brain hypoxia cause also be... (3)

Anemic (due to a bleed elsewhere), histotoxic (nitrogen "bends"), hypoglycemic

24

The most important thing to remember in regards to global event?

Selective vulnerability of cells

25

What cell is damaged most rapidly? Where in particular (3)?

Pyramidal cells; borderzone arterial territories, deep cortical layers (III, V, VI), hippocampus

26

Describe cellular selective vulnerability

Neurons > oligodendroglia > astrocytes

27

Brain death begins with...which does what? Then what? What happens to the tissue? Can you recover from brain death?

Diffuse cerebral edema; increased intracranial pressure; blood flow blocked; it begins autolysis (liquefaction); NO

28

What is the difference between persistent vegetative state and brain death?

Brain death has not happened because it never lost perfusion; vegetative state = spontaneous eye opening, sleep-wake cycles, maintain breathing

29

Three most common causes of stroke

Cardioembolic (embolism from heart), atherosclerotic, lacunar (small vessel stroke)

30

Risk factors (5)

Hypertension, heart disease, carotid bruit, diabetes, smoking

31

Best predictor of stroke

Previous stroke

32

Leading stroke risk factor for women and modifiable women-specific stroke risk factors

Migraine with aura; oral contraceptives

33

Ischemic stroke definition and typical cause

Low blood flow to focal part of the brain; thromboembolism

34

How much stroke is ischemic (%)

85%

35

Core of stroke...

Does not recover

36

What region of the stroke may be salvageable?

Penumbra around core; this is why we must treat quickly

37

What is the border of the stroke called?

Benign oligemia

38

ACA stroke (arm and leg)

Leg > arm

39

MCA gives rise to which important distribution? Where?

Lenticulostriate (internal capsule and basal ganglia)

40

MCA stroke (arm and leg)

Arm > leg

41

Left (dominant) cerebral hemisphere symptoms (4)

Aphasia, L graze preference (look at stroke), R visual field deficit, R hemiparesis/sensory loss

42

"Anterior circulation" stroke includes which two artery involvement?

ACA/MCA

43

Right (nondominant) cerebral hemisphere (4)

R gaze preference (look at stroke), L visual field deficit, L hemiparesis/sensory loss, NEGLECT (L hemi-inattention and anosagnosia)

44

What is an internal carotid artery occlusion typically preceded by and course of this? What other symptoms (aka, arteries)?

Amaurosis fugax: gray shade dropping over the eye; demonstrates that presence of carotid artery occlusion --> reduced retinal circulation --> blindness (retinal hypoxia); anterior = MCA and ACA symptoms

45

PCA syndrome (contralateral, dominant, and bilateral)

Contralateral = homonymous hemianopsia w/ macular sparing; Dominant = alexia w/out agraphia; Bilateral = Anton's syndrome

46

Brainstem stroke can cause what kinds of paresis/sensory loss

Hemi- or quadri-

47

Emboli are more frequent in posterior or anterior vertebral circulation?

Anterior

48

Acute cerebellar infarction: presents as...but one important consideration

Often doesn't look so bad on presentation; can develop life-threatening edema due to ventricular system/brainstem obstruction

49

Stroke where causes locked-in syndrome. What vessel?

Pons; basilar artery

50

Is a persistent vegetative state a coma?

Yes

51

Lacunar infarcts and locations (4)

Pure motor (posterior IC), pure sensory (thalamus), dysarthria/clumsy hand syndrome (pons), ataxic hemiparesis (plantar cerebellar/corticospinal)

52

Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

Reversible focal dysfunction defined as less than 24 hours; should initiate stroke therapy (linked to stroke in coming days)

53

Subarachnoid hemorrhage; symptoms (3)

Bleeding around brain, typically caused by aneurysm; "worst headache of the life," N/V, neck stiffness

54

Types of aneurysms (3)

Berry, mycotic (due to infection), Charcot-Bouchard (micro-aneurysms usually in lenticulostriates associated with hypertension)

55

Berry aneurysms are most commonly found...%

At juncture between anterior communicating and ACA (40%)

56

Intracerebral hemorrhage most commonly caused by...

Chronic hypertension

57

Carotid dissection (def)

Two layers of carotid wall separate causing luminal narrowing + formation of blood clot

58

How to evaluate for tPA...can't use in what situation? What about platelets?

Hemorrhage; if platelets are less than 100,000, no tPA

59

General principles of stroke treatment...

1. 85% are ischemic, 2. Most caused by clot, 3. Ischemic penumbra = time is brain

60

tPA timeline

>3 hours = IV tPA; 3-6 hours = IA tPA; >6 hours = endovascular intervention

61

Which, IV or IA, is better? IA requires what?

IV; IA requires angiogram

62

Aspirin is used to prevent...

Recurrent ischemic strokes

63

What's a good pneumonic for remembering what limb ACA and MCA have a preference for?

Alma (like alma mater) = anterior leg, middle arm

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