Lecture 23 - Fundamentals of Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 23 - Fundamentals of Nutrition Deck (60):
1

Carbohydrates should comprise _____ of the daily values of the diet.
A. 60%
B. 35%
C. 10%
D. 50%

A. 60%

2

Which of the following macromolecules is used in production of nitrogen containing molecules, hormones, and TCA intermediates?
A. Fats
B. Sugars
C. Proteins
D. Amino acids

D. Amino Acids

3

Lipids should comprise _____ of the daily values of the diet.
A. 20%
B. 30%
C. 10%
D. 50%

B. 30%

4

What compound is important in the production of energy through metabolism and formation of other important biomolecules.
A. Fats
B. Carbs
C. Proteins
D. AAs

D. Amino acids

5

Proteins should comprise _____ of the daily values of the diet.
A. 25%
B. 30%
C. 50%
D. 10%

D. 10%

6

Monosaccharides and disaccharides are important as ____ molecules.
A. Storage
B. Energy
C. Signaling
D. Protein modifying

B. Energy

7

Proteins should comprise _____ of the daily values of the diet.
A. 25%
B. 30%
C. 50%
D. 10%

D. 10%

8

Monosaccharides and disaccharides are important as ____ molecules.
A. Storage
B. Energy
C. Signaling
D. Protein modifying

B. Energy

9

Ingested lipids are in the ___ form.
A. Triacylglycerol
B. Cholesterol
C. Free fatty acid
D. Phospholipid

A. Triacylglycerol

10

Lingual lipase digests ____ in the _____.
A. Short and medium chain FAs; oral cavity
B. Short and medium chain Fas; stomach
C. Trigylcerols; small intestine
D. Phospholipids; small intestine

A. Short and medium chain FAs; oral cavity

11

Gastric lipase digests _____ in the _____.
A. Short and medium chain FAs; oral cavity
B. Short and medium chain Fas; stomach
C. Trigylcerols; small intestine
D. Phospholipids; small intestine

B. Short and medium chain Fas; stomach

12

Pancreatic lipase digests _____ in the _____.
A. Short and medium chain FAs; oral cavity
B. Short and medium chain Fas; stomach
C. Trigylcerols; small intestine
D. Phospholipids; small intestine

C. Trigylcerols; small intestine

13

Pancreatic lipase digests _____ in the _____.
A. Short and medium chain FAs; oral cavity
B. Short and medium chain Fas; stomach
C. Trigylcerols; small intestine
D. Phospholipids; small intestine

C. Trigylcerols; small intestine

14

Phospholipase digests ____ in the _____.
A. Short and medium chain FAs; oral cavity
B. Short and medium chain Fas; stomach
C. Trigylcerols; small intestine
D. Phoshpolipids; small intestine

D. Phoshpolipids; small intestine

15

Cholesterol esterase digests ____ in the _____.
A. Short and medium chain FAs; oral cavity
B. Cholesterol; small intestine
C. Trigylcerols; small intestine
D. Phospholipids; small intestine

B. Cholesterol; small intestine

16

A patient presents with a complaint of severe nausea after a meal. Through lab work, the patient is found to have a mutation to to gastric lipase. What type of meal might increase the patient’s discomfort?
A. A meal high in fatty acids
B. A meal high in protein
C. A meal high in carbohydrates
D. A meal that is comprised of cholesterol

A. A meal high in fatty acids

17

n. What 4 vitamins are derived from fatty acids?
A. B vitamins, Vit. D, Vit. K, Vit. E
B. Vit. D, Vit. E, Vit. A, Vit. K

B. Vitamins D,E,A, & K

18

Vitamin B₂ (thiamine) is part of ______, a co-factor.
A. Flavin adenine dinucleotide
B. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
C. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
D. Ascorbate

B. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

19

Vitamin B₃ (niacin) is part of _____, a co-factor.
A. Flavin adenine dinucleotide
B. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
C. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
D. Ascorbate

B. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

20

Vitamin C is part of ____, a co-factor.
A. Flavin adenine dinucleotide
B. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
C. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
D. Ascorbate

D. Ascorbate

21

Vitamin B₁ is part of ____, a co-factor.
A. Flavin adenine dinucleotide
B. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
C. Thiamine pyrophosphate
D. Ascorbate

C. Thiamine pyrophosphate

22

Vitamin B₅ (pantothenic acid) is part of _____, a cofactor.
A. Flavin adenine dinucleotide
B. Coenzyme A
C. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
D. Ascorbate

B. Coenzyme A

23

Vitamin B₆ (pyridoxine) is part of _____, a co-factor.
A. Pyridoxal phosphate
B. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
C. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
D. Ascorbate

A. Pyridoxal phosphate

24

Vitamin B₁₂ (cobalamin) is part of _____, a co-factor.

A. Flavin adenine dinucleotide

B. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

C. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate

D. Adenosyl cobalamin methylcobalamin

D. Adenosyl cobalamin methylcobalamin

25

Biotin is part of _____.

A. Flavin adenine dinucleotide

B. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

C. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate

D. Biotin

D. Biotin

26

Folate is part of ____.

A. Flavin adenine dinucleotide

B. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

C. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate

D. Tetrahydrofolate

D. Tetrahydrofolate

27

Lack of vitamin C produces _____.

A. Scurvy

B. Beriberi

C. Pelligra

D. Megaloblastic anemia

A. Scurvy

28

Lack of Vit. B₁ (thiamin) produces _____.

A. Beriberi

B. Ariboflavinosis

C. Night blindness

D. Liver damage

A. Beriberi

29

Lack of riboflavin produces

A. Airobflavinosis

B. Night blindness

C. Beriberi

D. Anemia

A. Airobflavinosis

30

Niacin (Vit. B₃) deficiency produces _____.

A. Pellagra

B. Anemia

C. Night blindness

D. Scurvy

A. Pellagra

31

Vitamin B₆ (pyridoxine) deficiency produces ______.

A. Scurvy

B. Liver damage

C. Pellagra

D. Anemia

D. Anemia

32

Folate deficiency produces _____.

A. Megaolblastic anemia

B. night blindness

C. Rickets

D. Liver damage

A. Megaolblastic anemia

33

Vit. B₁₂ deficiency produces _____.

A. Megaloblastic anemia

B. Night blindness

C. Rickets

D. Liver damage

C. Rickets

34

Lack of biotin produces _____.

A. Conjunctivitis/CNS abnormalities

B. night blindness

C. malaise

D. liver damage

A. Conjunctivitis/CNS abnormalities

35

Two pathways will convert inactive compounds to activated cholecalciferol (D3). They are UV radiation in the skin and _____.
A. Liver enzymes
B. Enzymes in the intestine
C. Enzymes in the blood
D. Enzymes in the skin

B. Enzymes in the intestine

36

25-hydroxycholecalciferol becomes activated 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the ____.
A. Skin
B. Liver
C. Kidney
D. Intestine

C. Kidney

37

What is the "proper name" for calcitriol (Vitamin D3)?

1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol

38

This enzyme is responsible for managing blood calcium and phosphate concentrations.
A. Calcitriol
B. Calmodulin
C. Calsequestrin
D. Cholecalciferol

A. Calcitriol

39

This enzyme is responsible for the activation of vitamin K
A. gamma-hydroxylase
B. Vitamin K reductase
C. Vitamin K oxidase
D. Vitamin K Co-factor reductase

B. Vitamin K. reductase

40

Vitamin K acts as a cofactor to this enzyme to promote maturation of clotting cascade proteins.
A. Vitamin K Co-factor reductase
B. Vitamin K reductase
C. Vitamin K oxidase
D. gamma-hydroxylase

D. gamma-hydroxylase

41

These are organic compounds ingested in the diet.

Minerals

42

Minerals with a charge

electrolytes

43

Reduced glutathione reductase activity is noted in a patient. This patient has large amounts of free radicals in her blood. What co-factor is missing?
A. Copper
B. Iron
C. Magnesium
D. Selenium

D. Selenium

44

ATP degredation occurs with this molecule acting to stabilize ATP; it also helps convert ATP to cAMP; additionally, it assists kinases in their activity
A. Magnesium
B. Iron
C. Magnesium
D. Zinc

A. Magnesium

45

Found in many enzymes that are required to bind high energy electrons, transport oxygen, and metabolize H2O2.
A. Magnesium
B. Iron
C. Magnesium
D. Zinc

B. Iron

46

This co-factor is important in the activity of antioxidant, collagenases, phosphatases, and transcription factors. Also assists in the conversion of CO2 to HCO3 in blood pH management.
A. Magnesium
B. Iron
C. Magnesium
D. Zinc

D. Zinc

47

Assists in transport high energy electrons and oxidation of iron; also works with enzymes that reduce free radicals, cross-links collagen, and melanin synthesis
A. Magnesium
B. Iron
C. Copper
D. Zinc

C. Copper

48

Small organic molecules derived from vitamins that function as co-factors to enzymes
A. Prosthetic group
B. Co-enzyme
C. Co-factor enabler
D. Vitamin derivatives

B. Co-enzyme

49

Tightly bound co-enzymes

prosthetic group

50

Iron exists in the ___ oxidation state in the intestinal lumen.
A. Fe3+
B. Fe2+
C. Fe1+
D. Fe4+

A. Fe3+

51

A patient has overdosed on antacids, which act as an inhibitor of ferric reductase. What oxidation state would you expect Iron to be found in as a result?
A. Fe1+
B. Fe3+
C. Fe2+
D. Fe4+

B. Fe3+

52

Iron is transported through pores of the intestinal lumen following reduction from Fe3+ to Fe2+ by what enzyme?
A. Ferroportinase
B. Transferrin
C. Ferric reductase
D. None of the above

C. Ferric reductase

53

3 essential FAs

Linolenate (omega-6 C18)
Linolate (omega-3 C18)
Arachadonate (omega-6 C20)

54

18:3 essential fatty acid
A. Linoleic
B. Linolenic
C. Arachidonic

B. Linolenic

55

18:2 essential fatty acid
A. Linoleic
B. Linolenic
C. Arachidonic

A. Linoleic

56

20:4 essential fatty acid
A. Linoleic
B. Linolenic
C. Arachidonic

C. Arachidonic

57

The cholesterol precursor to Vit. D3 is found in the _____.
A. Kidney
B. Liver
C. Skin
D. Intestines

C. Skin

58

The D2 precursor to Vitamin D3 is found in the _____.
A. Kidney
B. Liver
C. Skin
D. Intestines

D. Intestines

59

This shuttles reduced Iron from the intestinal lumen to the blood.
A. Ferric reductase
B. Transferrin
C. Ferroportin

C. Ferroportin

60

This transports reduced iron in RBCs.
A. Ferroportin
B. Transferrin
C. Ferric reductase

B. Transferrin