Lecture 20 - Nucleotide Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 20 - Nucleotide Structure Deck (38)
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1

The "acid" portion of DNA or RNA arise from _____.

the phosphate/phosphoric acid

2

Nucleic acids are nucleotides attached to a _____.

sugar-phosphate backbone

3

Describe the sugar-phosphate backbone

the 5' phosphate group of one nucleotide is attached to the 3' -OH of another nucleotide

4

The sugar backbone is comprised of ______ bonds.

phosphodiester

5

Describe the hydrogen bonding in base pairing of nucleotides

A2T; G3C

6

The fully folded chromosome is found in what stage of mitosis?

the M-phase (chromosome segregation)

7

Uncoiled DNA is found in what phase of mitosis?

The I-phase (interphase)

8

Histone proteins + nuclear DNA is called _____.

chromatin

9

What differentiates ribose from deoxyribose sugars?

Ribose has a C2 and C3 -OH group; Deooxyribose has only a C3 -OH group

10

Bases + sugar = ______

nucleoside

11

base + sugar + phosphate = _________

nucleotides

12

Pyrimidines are the (large/small) ring stucture of nitrogenous bases.

small (Memory aid: big name, small ring)

13

Memory aid for purine and pyrimidine:

Pure As Gold: Purine - adenine, guanine

14

Reduces ribose sugars to deoxyribose sugars.

ribonucleotide reductase (removes C2 -OH group)

15

Why is production of nucleotides a highly energy favorable process?

Most nucleotides exist as a triphosphate. Cleavage of 2 Pi release energy and forms a nucleotide

16

Name and f(x)?

- Coenzyme-A

- synthesis and beta-oxidation of fatty acids - pyruvate oxidation

17

Name and F(x)?

- NAD

- acts as an electron carrier in redox reactions to form NADH

18

Name and F(x)?

- FAD

- Participates in redox reactions ot accept 2e to form FADH2

19

DNA/RNA is synthesized in the ______ direction.

5'-3'

20

Carbon 1 of sugar contains _____.

N-base

21

Carbon 2 of sugar contains ______.

either -H or -OH (deoxy vs ribose sugar)

22

Carbon 3 of sugar contains _____.

-OH group; forms phosphodiester bond with C5

23

Carbon 5 of sugar contains ______.

Phosphate group (binds with C3 -OH to form phosphodiester bond)

24

One turn of DNA is approximately ____ in length.

34 angstroms

25

How may base pairs per turn?

10 (~ every 3.4 angstroms)

26

What increased nucleotide ratio increases denaturation temperature? Why?

Increased G:C. Because G:C has 3 H-bonds, compared to the 2 H-bonds of A:T

27

Coded for by viral genome. Assists in virus replication by making DNA from RNA

reverse transcriptase

28

Enzyme that cleaves nucleic acid into oligomers (insert picture)

ribonuclease/deoxyribonuclease

29

Cleaves phosphdiester backbone (insert picture)

phosphdiesterase

30

Cleaves phosphate from nucleotide

nucleotidase (cleaves nucleotide to Pi and nucleoside