The "acid" portion of DNA or RNA arise from _____.
the phosphate/phosphoric acid
Nucleic acids are nucleotides attached to a _____.
Describe the sugar-phosphate backbone
the 5' phosphate group of one nucleotide is attached to the 3' -OH of another nucleotide
The sugar backbone is comprised of ______ bonds.
Describe the hydrogen bonding in base pairing of nucleotides
The fully folded chromosome is found in what stage of mitosis?
the M-phase (chromosome segregation)
Uncoiled DNA is found in what phase of mitosis?
The I-phase (interphase)
Histone proteins + nuclear DNA is called _____.
What differentiates ribose from deoxyribose sugars?
Ribose has a C2 and C3 -OH group; Deooxyribose has only a C3 -OH group
Bases + sugar = ______
base + sugar + phosphate = _________
Pyrimidines are the (large/small) ring stucture of nitrogenous bases.
small (Memory aid: big name, small ring)
Memory aid for purine and pyrimidine:
Pure As Gold: Purine - adenine, guanine
Reduces ribose sugars to deoxyribose sugars.
ribonucleotide reductase (removes C2 -OH group)
Why is production of nucleotides a highly energy favorable process?
Most nucleotides exist as a triphosphate. Cleavage of 2 Pi release energy and forms a nucleotide
Name and f(x)?
- synthesis and beta-oxidation of fatty acids - pyruvate oxidation
Name and F(x)?
- acts as an electron carrier in redox reactions to form NADH
Name and F(x)?
- Participates in redox reactions ot accept 2e to form FADH2
DNA/RNA is synthesized in the ______ direction.
Carbon 1 of sugar contains _____.
Carbon 2 of sugar contains ______.
either -H or -OH (deoxy vs ribose sugar)
Carbon 3 of sugar contains _____.
-OH group; forms phosphodiester bond with C5
Carbon 5 of sugar contains ______.
Phosphate group (binds with C3 -OH to form phosphodiester bond)
One turn of DNA is approximately ____ in length.
How may base pairs per turn?
10 (~ every 3.4 angstroms)
What increased nucleotide ratio increases denaturation temperature? Why?
Increased G:C. Because G:C has 3 H-bonds, compared to the 2 H-bonds of A:T
Coded for by viral genome. Assists in virus replication by making DNA from RNA
Enzyme that cleaves nucleic acid into oligomers (insert picture)
Cleaves phosphdiester backbone (insert picture)
Cleaves phosphate from nucleotide
nucleotidase (cleaves nucleotide to Pi and nucleoside