Lecture 22 - Intro to Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 22 - Intro to Metabolism Deck (30):
1

Series of linked chemical reactions that begin with a molecule and convert it to something else in a stepwise, carefully defined fashion

metabolism

2

Builds energy or converts energy/molecules into biologically useful forms

catabolism (ca+abolism = building things up)

3

Metabolic reaction class that requires energy to break things down.

anabolism

4

Contains a large -delta G and is the "free energy currency" of the cell

ATP

5

Movement of inorganic phosphates moves ______ around the cell.

energy

6

ATP acts as an energy donor by _________.

releasing energy with cleavage of phosphodiester bonds

7

Oxidation of carbon fuels produces _____.

CO2, water, and ATP

8

What is the "primary role of catabolism?"

Generate ATP

9

Rank the following in order of least to greatest energy levels:
CO2, formaldehyde, formic acid, methane, methanol

Why did you choose that ranking?

CO2, formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, methane

Molecules that have the greater ability to be oxidized (like methane-all hydrocarbon bonds) have greater energy of oxidation, and therefore, greater energy release.

10

Oxidation of fuels takes place ____ carbon(s) at at time.

one

11

The two main functions of fuel metabolism are ____ and ___.

generation of ATP; formation of a [gradient] (this allows for high potential energy)

12

Describe the three stages of energy extraction from foodstuffs

1) Absorption of molecules
2) Conversion into smaller units with minute ATP generation
3) Production of large amounts of ATP from aerobic respiration

13

Describe the process by which metabolism is regulated

1) Controlling [enzyme]
2) Control catalytic activity (1* allosteric control)
3) Controlling access to substrates (compartmentalizing everything)

14

Describe the forms of protein that each X-ray crystallography and NMR can investigate.

XRC - crystallized protein (a drawback)
NMR - protein in solution (a positive)

15

Describe the protein size that each X-Ray Crystallography and NMR can investigate

XRC - no size limit
NMR - large small proteins/protein domains

16

Rank the energy released from ATP by cleavage of each bond from greatest to least.

ATP -> ADP + Pi (unstable)
ADP -> AMP + Pi
AMP -> Adenine + Pi (very stable)

17

Many electron carriers in metabolic reactions are _____ based.
A. Adenine
B. Cytosine
C. Guanine
D. Thymidine

A. Adenine

18

Regarding protein size, what is an advantage to X-Ray crystallography?

A. There is no limit to protein size that can be examined, and can tell atomic distances
B. The protein must be small enough to be crystallized, making it useful for examining small, membrane bound proteins
C. The protein must be in solution, which allows for examination of large, soluble proteins

A. There is no limit to protein size that can be examined, and can tell atomic distances

19

What is an advantage of NMR in regard to protein size?

A. There is no limit to protein size that can be examined, and can tell atomic distances
B. The protein must be small enough to be crystallized, making it useful for examining small, membrane bound proteins
C. The protein must be in solution, which allows for examination of large, soluble proteins

C. The protein must be in solution, which allows for examination of large, soluble proteins

20

Which of the following is only able to tell information regarding the movement of electrons in proteins?
A. NMR
B. X-ray crystallography

A. NMR

21

Which of the following is able to show distance between atoms/protein shape?
A. NMR
B. X-ray crystallograpy

B. X-ray crystallography

22

The well fed liver relies on _____ for energy.

A. Fatty acids
B. Lactate
C. Glucose
D. Ketone bodies


A. Fatty acids

23

The fasting liver relies on _____ for fuel.

A. Fatty acids
B. Lactate
C. Glucose
D. Ketone bodies

C. glucose

24

The well fed heart relies on ___ for fuel.

A. Fatty acids
B. Lactate
C. Glucose
D. Ketone bodies

A. fatty acids

25

The fasting heart relies on _____ for fuel.

A. Fatty acids
B. Lactate
C. Glucose
D. Ketone bodies

B. lactate

26

The well fed muscle relies on _____ for fuel.

A. Fatty acids
B. Lactate
C. Glucose
D. Ketone bodies

C. glucose

27

The fasting muscle relies on ____ for fuel.

A. Fatty acids
B. Lactate
C. Glucose
D. Ketone bodies

D. ketone bodies

28

The well fed brain relies on ____ for fuel.

Glucose

29

The fasting brain relies on _______ for fuel in early starvation.

A. Fatty acids
B. Lactate
C. Glucose
D. Ketone bodies

C. glucose

via gluconeogenesis in the liver

30

The fasting brain relies on _____ for fuel in late starvation.

A. Fatty acids
B. Lactate
C. Glucose
D. Ketone bodies

D. ketone bodies