Flashcards in Lecture #24 Vaccines Deck (18):
Who is considered the "father of vaccination"
Edward Jenner, and the milkmaids. 1796, Vaccination in smallpox.
What were the first two pathogens that Pasteur worked with to produce immunity?
Chicken Cholera and Rabies; used attenuated forms of the pathogens
From Pasteur's spinal cord experiments, 1 in every 200 people became paralyzed and died? Why?
The vaccines were not pure. Autoimmunity from the introduction of spinal cells.
What were the three main developments in the rationale for vaccine design?
1) bacterial inactivation 2) discovery of bacterial toxins and production of anti toxins —toxin could be inactivated by formalin--toxoid (antibodies against inactivated toxins)
3) discovery that immune serum contained substances—
antibodies that neutralized bacterial toxins or bacterial
Who developed the vaccine for yellow fever?
Max Theiler at the Rockefeller Inst; attenuated virus still induced neutralizing antibodies; aim was to render the virus less virulent, but maintain immunogenicity.
Who developed a vaccine for polio, that was an inactivated/heat killed and injected?
Who developed a vaccine for polio, that was a live attenuated vaccine that was given orally?
Vaccinologist; developed more than 40 vaccines including 5 of the 14 immunizations routinely given to children and adults today (MMR; Haemophilus influenzae type B; Hepatitis B; developed a vaccine for influenza as well H2N2
How many vaccines have been shown to prevent infection in infants when given to mothers in the third trimester?
2 (Pertussis and influenza)
How does nutritional status affect vaccine efficacy?
Poor nutrition effects immune response.
Passage of organisms in unnatural hosts results in genetic selection of avirulent strains.
Why is it hard to develop vaccines against influenza?
There are many different strains of influenza. And it has been difficult to find conserved antigenic components on the virus.
What was the methodological breakthrough that occurred in the mid 20th century?
The ability to grow virus in culture. (Enders, Weller, Robins)
Why do we attenuate by passing a pathogen through a different host?
Because when you pass the pathogen through a different host, a less virulent strain is produced via mutation that can infect that organism. That strain can be introduced in to the target organism and elicit a weak immunological response.
Vaccines created by covalently joining a carrier protein to a poor (lipopolysaccharide) antigen; may provide both T cell and B cell immunity.
A substance that enhances the body's immune response an antigen; can activate innate and adaptive immunity.
6 Challenges for immunologists
1) Elucidation mechanisms by which innate immunity activating adaptive immunity 2) DC signaling networks that activate subsets of T cells 3) how to activate B-1 and marginal zone B cells 4) How innate immunity regulates the generation of memory B cells 5) How vaccines/Which vaccines can produce long lasting immunological responses 6) Development of novel vaccine delivery systems.