Lecture 36: Cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and the stress response Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 36: Cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and the stress response Deck (19):
1

Cortisol is released from the...

- Adrenal glands

2

The cortex secretes it's own hormones, and the inner medulla also secretes it's own hormones. What are the cortex and medulla?

- Outer region
- Inner region of adrenal cortex

3

The adrenal cortex has __ layers and secretes ____ hormones. The middle layer secretes ___.

- 3
- Steroid hormones
- Cortisol

4

In the outermost layer of the adrenal cortex ________ are being secreted, the middle layer: ______, the innermost layer ______. All are synthesised by ____ in the outermost layer.

- Mineralocorticoids
- Glucocorticoids
- Sex steroids
- Cholesterol

5

Cortisol mechanism of action:

- Cortisol bound to carrier protein
- Leaves carrier, enters target cell
- Binds receptor in cytoplasm
- Hormone-receptor complex migrates to nucleus
- Binds to DNA
- Transcription of specific genes is activated
- New proteins made
- Protein alters cellular processes in target cells
- (Minutes to days to develop)

6

Cortisol acts on the ____, _____ cells and _____cells

- Liver
- Muscle
- Fat

7

Abnormal stress stimulates the _______ which stimulates the _____ so that cortisol is secreted from the _____.

- Hypothalamus
- APG
- Adrenal Cortex

8

Cortisol levels rise with the decrease of ______.

- Glucose

9

Cortisol is mainly controlled by...

- Negative feedback

10

Other effects of corisol:

- Helps one to cope with stress
- Essential for maintaining normal blood pressure (can cause contraction of blood vessels)
- Long term; suppresses immune system

11

Low cortisol can cause

- Brain fog
- Low thyroid function
- Blood sugar imbalances
- Sleep disruption
- Low blood pressure
- Lowered immune function
- Fatigue
- Inflammation

12

What is Addison's Disease?

- Not enough cortisol
- Pigmentation of the skin
- increased ACTH levels

13

What're the inner medulla hormones?

- Epinephrine, norepinephrine
- These are catecholamines
- Water soluble

14

The adrenal medulla is part of the ______ nervous system.

- Sympathetic

15

The adrenal medulla is activated during times of abnormal stress and release...

- Epinephrine + norepinephrine in the blood stream
- "Fight of flight" response

16

The adrenal medulla pathway can complement the ______ system and also sustain the response.

- Sympathetic Nervous

17

Epinephrine effects:

- Increased breakdown of glycogen and glucose
- Increased breakdown of fat to fatty acids
- Makes fuel more readily available to cells

18

Neural pathways:

- Acute stress
- Neural pathways
- Sympathetic preganglionic fibres
- Epinephrine

19

Adrenal medulla is ___ whereas the adrenal cortex is ___. The medulla secretes ____ whereas the cortex secretes ____.

- Quick
- Slow
- Epinephrine
- Cortisol