Flashcards in Lecture 36: Cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and the stress response Deck (19)
Cortisol is released from the...
- Adrenal glands
The cortex secretes it's own hormones, and the inner medulla also secretes it's own hormones. What are the cortex and medulla?
- Outer region
- Inner region of adrenal cortex
The adrenal cortex has __ layers and secretes ____ hormones. The middle layer secretes ___.
- Steroid hormones
In the outermost layer of the adrenal cortex ________ are being secreted, the middle layer: ______, the innermost layer ______. All are synthesised by ____ in the outermost layer.
- Sex steroids
Cortisol mechanism of action:
- Cortisol bound to carrier protein
- Leaves carrier, enters target cell
- Binds receptor in cytoplasm
- Hormone-receptor complex migrates to nucleus
- Binds to DNA
- Transcription of specific genes is activated
- New proteins made
- Protein alters cellular processes in target cells
- (Minutes to days to develop)
Cortisol acts on the ____, _____ cells and _____cells
Abnormal stress stimulates the _______ which stimulates the _____ so that cortisol is secreted from the _____.
- Adrenal Cortex
Cortisol levels rise with the decrease of ______.
Cortisol is mainly controlled by...
- Negative feedback
Other effects of corisol:
- Helps one to cope with stress
- Essential for maintaining normal blood pressure (can cause contraction of blood vessels)
- Long term; suppresses immune system
Low cortisol can cause
- Brain fog
- Low thyroid function
- Blood sugar imbalances
- Sleep disruption
- Low blood pressure
- Lowered immune function
What is Addison's Disease?
- Not enough cortisol
- Pigmentation of the skin
- increased ACTH levels
What're the inner medulla hormones?
- Epinephrine, norepinephrine
- These are catecholamines
- Water soluble
The adrenal medulla is part of the ______ nervous system.
The adrenal medulla is activated during times of abnormal stress and release...
- Epinephrine + norepinephrine in the blood stream
- "Fight of flight" response
The adrenal medulla pathway can complement the ______ system and also sustain the response.
- Sympathetic Nervous
- Increased breakdown of glycogen and glucose
- Increased breakdown of fat to fatty acids
- Makes fuel more readily available to cells
- Acute stress
- Neural pathways
- Sympathetic preganglionic fibres