Lecture 40: Immunology and the Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 40: Immunology and the Immune System Deck (19)

Define the immune system:

- Composed of organs (eg. spleen), cells (eg. T cells), molecules (eg antibodies)
- An organised system of organs, cells, and molecules that interact together to defend the body against disease.


Immune system can cause damage to ______ systems.

- Endocrine
- Neurological
- Physiological


Organs of the immune system:

- Primary and secondary lymphoid organs
- Primary = production of white blood cells (lymphocytes) usually in thymus or bone marrow
- Secondary = sites where immune responses are initiated (mostly in lymph nodes)


What is important about the Thymus?

- "School" for T Cells (white blood cells)
- Developing T Cells learn not to react to self
- Only 10% of T Cells actually leave the Thymus to become a mature T Cell
- If you don't "pass" there are no second chances, you just die


What's so important about the bone marrow?

- Source of stem cells that develop into cells of the innate' and 'adaptive' immune responses


T Cells are made in the _____. B Cells are made in the _____.

- Thymus
- Bone Marrow


Lymph nodes are located along _____ ______. Lymph fluid from blood and tissue is _____. This is the site of ______ of immune responses.

- Lymphatic vessels
- Filtered
- Initiation


Spleen does not have any _____ ______. It's there to ______ the blood from blood-borne ______.

- Lymphatic Vessels
- Blood
- Pathogens


3 Layers of Immune Defence:

- 1. Physical & Chemical Barriers (Skin, Mucosal Membranes)
- 2. Arm 1: Innate Immune System - rapid, non-specific, fixed
- 3. Arm 2.: Adaptive Immune System - slower, highly specific, adapts


Innate Immunity:

- Already in place
- Rapid
- Fixed
- Limited Specificities
- No memory
- Phagocytes
- Complement
- Natural Killer Cells


Adaptive Immunity:

- Improves during response
- Slow (days --> weeks)
- Variable
- Highly specific
- Has memory
- B Lymphocytes
- Antibodies
- T Lymphocytes
- Effector T Cells


Arms of the immune system both ______ together.

- Work



- @Plague of Athens
- "No one was ever attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result"


The development of vaccination:

- China, 10th Century AD: Variolation with Small Pox
- Variolation = giving a purposeful, controlled infection, idea being you don't get too sick from it


Variolation spreads to England:

- Lady Mary Wortley Montague (1700s)
- Brought variolation to England from Turkey


The first vaccine for smallpox:

- Benjamin Jesty: Inoculated wife and sons with matter from a cowpox lesion
- Vaccination: Inoculation with an innocuous biological agent


Smallpox Vaccination (Edward Jenner):

- Inoculated a boy with a cowpox sore from the hand of a milkmaid
- "In science credit always goes to the person who convinces the world, not the person to whom the idea first occurs"


Discovery of cells that eat things:

- Elie Metchnikoff (Late 1800s)
- Discovered phagocytes "devouring cells"
- Put bacteria on starfish larvae, and found that the bacteria was gobbled up


Self/non-self recognition:

- Peter Doherty + Rolf Zinkernagel
- Discovered the cell surface molecules used by the immune system to recognise 'self' known as MHC

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