Lecture 40: Immunology and the Immune System Flashcards Preview

HUBS 191💃✨ > Lecture 40: Immunology and the Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 40: Immunology and the Immune System Deck (19):
1

Define the immune system:

- Composed of organs (eg. spleen), cells (eg. T cells), molecules (eg antibodies)
- An organised system of organs, cells, and molecules that interact together to defend the body against disease.

2

Immune system can cause damage to ______ systems.

- Endocrine
- Neurological
- Physiological

3

Organs of the immune system:

- Primary and secondary lymphoid organs
- Primary = production of white blood cells (lymphocytes) usually in thymus or bone marrow
- Secondary = sites where immune responses are initiated (mostly in lymph nodes)

4

What is important about the Thymus?

- "School" for T Cells (white blood cells)
- Developing T Cells learn not to react to self
- Only 10% of T Cells actually leave the Thymus to become a mature T Cell
- If you don't "pass" there are no second chances, you just die

5

What's so important about the bone marrow?

- Source of stem cells that develop into cells of the innate' and 'adaptive' immune responses

6

T Cells are made in the _____. B Cells are made in the _____.

- Thymus
- Bone Marrow

7

Lymph nodes are located along _____ ______. Lymph fluid from blood and tissue is _____. This is the site of ______ of immune responses.

- Lymphatic vessels
- Filtered
- Initiation

8

Spleen does not have any _____ ______. It's there to ______ the blood from blood-borne ______.

- Lymphatic Vessels
- Blood
- Pathogens

9

3 Layers of Immune Defence:

- 1. Physical & Chemical Barriers (Skin, Mucosal Membranes)
- 2. Arm 1: Innate Immune System - rapid, non-specific, fixed
- 3. Arm 2.: Adaptive Immune System - slower, highly specific, adapts

10

Innate Immunity:

- Already in place
- Rapid
- Fixed
- Limited Specificities
- No memory
- Phagocytes
- Complement
- Natural Killer Cells

11

Adaptive Immunity:

- Improves during response
- Slow (days --> weeks)
- Variable
- Highly specific
- Has memory
- B Lymphocytes
- Antibodies
- T Lymphocytes
- Effector T Cells

12

Arms of the immune system both ______ together.

- Work

13

Thucydides:

- @Plague of Athens
- "No one was ever attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result"

14

The development of vaccination:

- China, 10th Century AD: Variolation with Small Pox
- Variolation = giving a purposeful, controlled infection, idea being you don't get too sick from it

15

Variolation spreads to England:

- Lady Mary Wortley Montague (1700s)
- Brought variolation to England from Turkey

16

The first vaccine for smallpox:

- Benjamin Jesty: Inoculated wife and sons with matter from a cowpox lesion
- Vaccination: Inoculation with an innocuous biological agent

17

Smallpox Vaccination (Edward Jenner):

- Inoculated a boy with a cowpox sore from the hand of a milkmaid
- "In science credit always goes to the person who convinces the world, not the person to whom the idea first occurs"

18

Discovery of cells that eat things:

- Elie Metchnikoff (Late 1800s)
- Discovered phagocytes "devouring cells"
- Put bacteria on starfish larvae, and found that the bacteria was gobbled up
- INNATE IMMUNITY

19

Self/non-self recognition:

- Peter Doherty + Rolf Zinkernagel
- Discovered the cell surface molecules used by the immune system to recognise 'self' known as MHC
- ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY