Flashcards in Lecture 40: Immunology and the Immune System Deck (19):
Define the immune system:
- Composed of organs (eg. spleen), cells (eg. T cells), molecules (eg antibodies)
- An organised system of organs, cells, and molecules that interact together to defend the body against disease.
Immune system can cause damage to ______ systems.
Organs of the immune system:
- Primary and secondary lymphoid organs
- Primary = production of white blood cells (lymphocytes) usually in thymus or bone marrow
- Secondary = sites where immune responses are initiated (mostly in lymph nodes)
What is important about the Thymus?
- "School" for T Cells (white blood cells)
- Developing T Cells learn not to react to self
- Only 10% of T Cells actually leave the Thymus to become a mature T Cell
- If you don't "pass" there are no second chances, you just die
What's so important about the bone marrow?
- Source of stem cells that develop into cells of the innate' and 'adaptive' immune responses
T Cells are made in the _____. B Cells are made in the _____.
- Bone Marrow
Lymph nodes are located along _____ ______. Lymph fluid from blood and tissue is _____. This is the site of ______ of immune responses.
- Lymphatic vessels
Spleen does not have any _____ ______. It's there to ______ the blood from blood-borne ______.
- Lymphatic Vessels
3 Layers of Immune Defence:
- 1. Physical & Chemical Barriers (Skin, Mucosal Membranes)
- 2. Arm 1: Innate Immune System - rapid, non-specific, fixed
- 3. Arm 2.: Adaptive Immune System - slower, highly specific, adapts
- Already in place
- Limited Specificities
- No memory
- Natural Killer Cells
- Improves during response
- Slow (days --> weeks)
- Highly specific
- Has memory
- B Lymphocytes
- T Lymphocytes
- Effector T Cells
Arms of the immune system both ______ together.
- @Plague of Athens
- "No one was ever attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result"
The development of vaccination:
- China, 10th Century AD: Variolation with Small Pox
- Variolation = giving a purposeful, controlled infection, idea being you don't get too sick from it
Variolation spreads to England:
- Lady Mary Wortley Montague (1700s)
- Brought variolation to England from Turkey
The first vaccine for smallpox:
- Benjamin Jesty: Inoculated wife and sons with matter from a cowpox lesion
- Vaccination: Inoculation with an innocuous biological agent
Smallpox Vaccination (Edward Jenner):
- Inoculated a boy with a cowpox sore from the hand of a milkmaid
- "In science credit always goes to the person who convinces the world, not the person to whom the idea first occurs"
Discovery of cells that eat things:
- Elie Metchnikoff (Late 1800s)
- Discovered phagocytes "devouring cells"
- Put bacteria on starfish larvae, and found that the bacteria was gobbled up
- INNATE IMMUNITY