Lecture 41 / 42 : Final Exam Structure + Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 41 / 42 : Final Exam Structure + Immune System Deck (20):
1

There will be a larger chunk of immunology material in MCQ in final exam!!!!

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2

Written answer section:
15 marks = musculoskeletal, 1 MINI ESSAY
18 marks = neuroscience, 1 MINI ESSAY
12 marks = endocrinology and homeostasis
15 marks = immunology, 1 MINI ESSAY

Short answer question
One word / one sentence

Mini-essays
Similar to the examples in terms test

!!!

3

Inflammatory Response: Stages

- Stood on splinter covered with pathogens
- Mast Cell + Macrophage secrete cytokines
- Neutrophils move out of blood through diapedesis and engulf pathogens
- Neutrophils have engulfed organisms and dead cells, accumulation of pus = dead neutrophils, etc.

4

Acute phase reactants:

- Produced by liver in response to inflammatory cytokines (eg IL-1)
- Examples: C reactive protein (binds to bacteria and activates complement) + Haptoglobin (inhibits microbial iron uptake)

5

Natural Killer Cells:

- Large granular cells resembling lymphocytes
- Help combat viral infections and cancer
- NK Cells produce: Toxic molecules that directly kill target cells (virus-infected cells or tumour cells)
- Cytokines that help other cells kill their targets

6

Microbial cell wall components bind to receptors on insect cells:

- Toll receptors

7

Toll-like Receptors can recognise ______ and bind to common ______ ______.

- Patterns
- Microbial Bacteria

8

Bacterial and viral components trigger toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the _____ ______ or in vacuoles of white blood cells, eliciting signals that drive _______.

- Plasma membrane
- Inflammation

9

6 Stages of Phagocytosis:

- 1. Pseudopopdia surround microbes (like giving a hug)
- 2. Mibrobes adhere to phagocyte and are engulfed
- 3. Ingestion of microbes into vacuoles
- 4. Fusion of vacuole and lysosome
- 5. Killing and digestion of microbe
-.6. Exocytosis

10

Inside the phagocytes...

- Low pH
- Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen intermediates
- Enzymes:
Proteases
Lipases
Nucleases

11

The Complement System:

- Made up of about 9 major proteins / protein complexes act in sequence to clear pathogens from blood and tissues
- Waterfall analogy = amplification of response
- Label pathogens (opsonisation)
- Recruit phagocytes (chemotaxis)
- Destroy pathogens (lysis)

12

3 Complement Pathways

- Classical (antibody binds to pathogen, binds complement)
- Alternative (pathogen binds complement to surface / pathogen complement)
- Lectin

13

Complement pathways converge into C3-_ and C3b, outcomes = ?

- Label, Destroy, Recruit

14

3 Outcomes from the Complement Cascade:

- C3b (Label)
- C9 (Destroy)
- C3a and C5a (Recruit)

15

Opsonisation = coating of a microbe with ______ and/or complement fragment C3b

- Antibody

16

Recruitment = phagocytes attracted into site, mast cells ________

- Degranulated

17

Destroy = microbes coated with C3b are _________. Assembly of MAC complex causes _____.

- Phagocytosed
- Lysis

18

How can microbes be introduced into the body?

- Cuts, burns
- Mosquito bites
- Animal Bite
- Gut Mucosa
- Penetration of intact skin
- Respiratory Mucose

19

Staphylococcus aureus is an infection of the ____.

- Skin

20

How do microbes avoid innate immune responses?

- Make surface molecules that resist antimicrobial peptides
- Evade uptake by encasing in a slimy capsule
- Prevent fusion of phagosome with lysosome during phagocytosis
- Produce proteins that inhibit Interferon signalling