Flashcards in Lecture 41 / 42 : Final Exam Structure + Immune System Deck (20)
There will be a larger chunk of immunology material in MCQ in final exam!!!!
Written answer section:
15 marks = musculoskeletal, 1 MINI ESSAY
18 marks = neuroscience, 1 MINI ESSAY
12 marks = endocrinology and homeostasis
15 marks = immunology, 1 MINI ESSAY
Short answer question
One word / one sentence
Similar to the examples in terms test
Inflammatory Response: Stages
- Stood on splinter covered with pathogens
- Mast Cell + Macrophage secrete cytokines
- Neutrophils move out of blood through diapedesis and engulf pathogens
- Neutrophils have engulfed organisms and dead cells, accumulation of pus = dead neutrophils, etc.
Acute phase reactants:
- Produced by liver in response to inflammatory cytokines (eg IL-1)
- Examples: C reactive protein (binds to bacteria and activates complement) + Haptoglobin (inhibits microbial iron uptake)
Natural Killer Cells:
- Large granular cells resembling lymphocytes
- Help combat viral infections and cancer
- NK Cells produce: Toxic molecules that directly kill target cells (virus-infected cells or tumour cells)
- Cytokines that help other cells kill their targets
Microbial cell wall components bind to receptors on insect cells:
- Toll receptors
Toll-like Receptors can recognise ______ and bind to common ______ ______.
- Microbial Bacteria
Bacterial and viral components trigger toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the _____ ______ or in vacuoles of white blood cells, eliciting signals that drive _______.
- Plasma membrane
6 Stages of Phagocytosis:
- 1. Pseudopopdia surround microbes (like giving a hug)
- 2. Mibrobes adhere to phagocyte and are engulfed
- 3. Ingestion of microbes into vacuoles
- 4. Fusion of vacuole and lysosome
- 5. Killing and digestion of microbe
Inside the phagocytes...
- Low pH
- Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen intermediates
The Complement System:
- Made up of about 9 major proteins / protein complexes act in sequence to clear pathogens from blood and tissues
- Waterfall analogy = amplification of response
- Label pathogens (opsonisation)
- Recruit phagocytes (chemotaxis)
- Destroy pathogens (lysis)
3 Complement Pathways
- Classical (antibody binds to pathogen, binds complement)
- Alternative (pathogen binds complement to surface / pathogen complement)
Complement pathways converge into C3-_ and C3b, outcomes = ?
- Label, Destroy, Recruit
3 Outcomes from the Complement Cascade:
- C3b (Label)
- C9 (Destroy)
- C3a and C5a (Recruit)
Opsonisation = coating of a microbe with ______ and/or complement fragment C3b
Recruitment = phagocytes attracted into site, mast cells ________
Destroy = microbes coated with C3b are _________. Assembly of MAC complex causes _____.
How can microbes be introduced into the body?
- Cuts, burns
- Mosquito bites
- Animal Bite
- Gut Mucosa
- Penetration of intact skin
- Respiratory Mucose
Staphylococcus aureus is an infection of the ____.